chapter 1 early civilizations mesopotamia & the nile

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Chapter 1 Early Civilizations Mesopotamia & The Nile. City States of Mesopotamia. Figure 1-3 p10. III. Civilization in Mesopotamia Sumerian Cities. Sumerian Cities Surrounded by walls. Mud brick structures Accumulation of surplus wealth Ziggurat – the temple. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • Chapter 1

    Early Civilizations

    Mesopotamia & The Nile

  • Figure 1-3 p10City States of Mesopotamia

  • III. Civilization in MesopotamiaSumerian CitiesSumerian CitiesSurrounded by walls.Mud brick structuresAccumulation of surplus wealth

    Ziggurat the temple

    Excavation of Warka showing the ruins of Uruk

  • Kingship King believed to be of divine originTheocracy priests and priestesses had an important role in governance, gods ruled cities actual ruling power rested with the king

  • p11Royal Standard of Ur, 2700 B.C.E.Rise of surplus of wealth led to a more Militarized society ruled by a king

  • Economy

    AgricultureCommerce and industry (woolen textiles, pottery, metal work)Imported copper, tin and timberUtilized the wheel that had been invented by nomads in 3000BCE

  • SocietyFour Tiered HierarchyElitesDependent commoners elites clients who worked for the palace and temple estatesFree commoners farmers 90% OF POP, merchants, scribes, craftspeopleSlaves belonged to palace officials, mostly female slaves to weave cloth and grind grain and to rich landowners who used them for agricultural and domestic work

  • Social Change with Urbanization VIllagePatrifocalConcentration of wealthStratification of wealthSexual morality regulatedPaternity & inheritancePastoralAfter 3500BCE city influencesIncreasingly organized around raiding & militaryFor some women participated equallyGreece & PersiaSauromatian & Saka Rode, hunted, went into battleMarried after first kill

  • III. Empires in MesopotamiaSargons Empire (2340BCE 2100BCE)By 2300 women & sex trade2340BCE Sargon, leader of the Semitic people He used former rulers as governorsPower was a standing army of 5,400 menHe expanded the empire to include all of Mesopotamia and lands westward to the Mediterranean

  • Women During SargonCould inherit property Exercised political powerSumerian Queens had seals, occupied important positions of influencePlayed an important role in temple ritualsEnheduanna, Priestess of the Temple of Ur Sargons daughter Emergence of Womens Work & Domesticity Slaves & commoners produced food, textiles & CeramicsScribes, Bakers, Prohpehts, Temple workers

  • Women & ReligionMinoan mother goddess2800 BCEGreek Island, CreteShamansCult LeadersGoddesses

  • III. Empires in MesopotamiaHammurabis Empire (1792- 1750 B.C.E.)Employed an army of foot soldiers (axes, spears, copper or bronze daggers)Divided and subdued opponentsGained control of Sumer and Akkad creating a new MesopotamiaCalled himself sun of Babylon, the king who has made the four quarters of the world subservientnew capital at Babylon

  • p12

  • Social ChangesInstitutional PatriarchyTribute ExtractionSocial Stratification disproportionate power systembeginning of Eurasian Slave tradeSociety became a political institution that enslaved numerous members of its population to provide order and stability for itselfLaw codes promoted universal standards of behaviorIrrigation & extensive military defense

  • Decline of Womens statusGenerallyDevaluation of social freedomsDenial of claims to the results of their laborReshaping of spiritual expressionMurder of a woman marked down from Capital offense (2000 BCE) to a fine under Hammurabi code (1750BCEWork became gender based, women paid less if it was the sameRight to inherit ended after 2000BCEWomens political & religious positions of power and roles ended by 1000BCE

  • III. Empires in MesopotamiaThe Code of Hammurabi: Society in Mesopotamia (Discussion)What does the code reveal about culture and society?PP 18-19 of textDo the codes evidence a system of strict justice or represent a code that is written in the principle of an eye for an eye or system of equal punishment?What type of justice system is it?

  • p14Stele of HammurabiDepicts Kings DivinityRecords the codeJudges encouraged men to sell women & children to satisfy debts

  • Changes For womenRight to inherit property eroded after 2000BCEBy 1000 BCE political power passed to menDecline of womens spiritual powerMyths emerged that recounted legendary battles between earth goddesses and sky thunder gods aroseBy 1000 BCE no longer permitted to take on cultic roles such as priestesses

  • III. Culture of MesopotamiaThe Importance of ReligionUnderstanding of physical environmentPolytheisticAn God of Sky (Earth Goddess had originally been more prominent)Enlil- God of windEnki God of earth, rivers, wells and canals and inventions of craftsNinhursaga goddess of soil, mountains, vegetationMother goddess, mother of all childrenGave birth to kingsdivination

  • p15

  • III. Writing & SciencesCuneiform wedge-shapedOldest texts 3000 B.C.E.Writing as a form of communication and knowledge transference is only 5,000 years old

    Math, Geometry, Astronomy, 12 month Calendar

  • Table 1-1 p12CuneiformDeveloped for record keepingScribal education established to produce professionally trained elite scribes Temples, palaces, military, government

  • p15Development of Cuneiform3100 700 B.C.EThe sign for star came to mean god or Sky

  • Figure 1-4 p17IV. Egyptian Civilization: The Gift of the Nile

  • IV. Egyptian Civilization: The Gift of the NileA. The Impact of GeographyThe Nile- gentle and predicableBlack land fertile soilRed land deserts to the west and eastLower Egypt delta regionUpper Egypt upstream and to the southProtected from invasionProsperous agricultural economyDevelopment of trade

  • Old, Middle & New KingdomsPeriods of Long term stabilityStrong Monarchical authorityCompetent BureaucracyFreedom from invasionConstruction of temples and pyramidsIntellectual and cultural activity

  • Intermediate PeriodsPeriod between the three KingdomsWeak political structuresRivalry for leadershipInvasionsDecline in constructionRestructuring of society

  • First Dynasty of Egypt3100 BCEKing MenesUnited Upper and Lower EgyptDouble Crown Created to represent unification Began the longest civilization in history Longest home rule in historyMost favorable for women

  • p23

  • Old Kingdom3-6th Dynasties, 2686 2180 BCECapital at MemphisKingship: the Pharaoh divine originKings Family - administrativeRuled according to principle of MaatConveyed ideas of truth and justice, right order and harmony

  • Development of 4th DynastyBureaucracyOffice of Vizier Steward of the whole LandResponsible to the KingNomes & NomarchsEgypt divided into provinces22 Upper Egypt20- - Lower EgyptNomarch or governor administrated and was responsible to the King and Vizier

  • Middle Kingdom2055 1650 BCENomes restructured with boundaries and obligations to state clarifiedNomarchs became hereditary officeholdersCollected state taxesRecruited labor for royal projectsNew concern of Pharaohs for the people

  • p19King Menkaure & QueenInvasion my Hyksos of W. Asia ended the Middle Kingdom by 1650 BCEHyksos prevailed with horse-drawn ChariotsRuled for 100 years

  • IV. D. Culture of EgyptFour Tiered HierarchyGod-KingNobles & PriestsMerchants & Artisans Extensive trade & international travelCommoners or farmersPaid taxesMilitary & labor service

  • IV. D. Culture of EgyptPolytheisticSun God Atum, ReAir God AmonRiver and land god and goddess Osiris and Isis, born HorusOsiris symbol of resurrection and birth

  • Culture of Egypt - ConstructionComplexes or cities of the deadIncorporated PyramidsLarger for kings burial, smaller or familyMastabasRectangular structures with flat roofs, tombs for noble officialsTombsRooms furnished and stocked so the Ka or spiritual body could return to a well preserved physical body (mummification)

  • Culture of Egypt Art and WritingHieroglyphics priest carvings or sacred WritingsPictographic like CuneiformDeveloped to record and transmit knowledgeMedical books, literature, record keepingChildren taken to educate as scribes for royalty and governmentOpportunity to rise in social status

  • p15Pictographic writing of Egypt

  • IV. E. Egyptian Empire18th DynastyPharoahs used new weapons to throw off Hyksos and reunite EgyptNew Kingdom 1550 1070 BCEMost powerful state in the Middle EastMassive wealth displayed by new temples

  • Queen Hatshepsut 1503-1480BCEFirst of four women to become PharaohBuilt the great temple Deir el Bahri near ThebesSent out military expeditionsEncouraged miningFostered agricultureSponsored trade expeditions

  • Women In EgyptMaintained economic agencyright to inherit property for thousands of yearsMonogamous marriageCould initiate and seek divorceWomen: scribes, bakers, prophets, temple workersWomens political agencyQueensPriestesses- controlled territory as virtual rulers, collected taxes and spent resourcesElite Women could become gods after death,

  • p23Kingdom of Nubia

  • Akhenaten & Religious Change18th C Amenhotep (1364-1347 BCE) introduced the worship of Aten, god of the sun disk (Monotheistic Religion)Changed his name to Akhenaten Servant of AtenClosed temples of other godsLessened power of Amon-Re and the priesthood at ThebesReplaced the Capital of Thebes with Akhetaten Horizon of Aten in modern Tell el-Amarna

  • Decline of Egyptian Empire19th Dynasty under Ramses II (1279 1213 BCE) restored Egyptian powerRegained Canaan13th Century invasions by sea peoples drove borders to original frontiers20th Dynasty in 1070 for 1000 yearsLibyansNubians/KushitesPersiansMacedoniansRome

    Civilization in Mesopotamia the land between two riversTigris and EuphratesDue


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