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Fibres Fabrics. How do we make fabrics?. Some fibres can be used directly to make fabrics ( eg felting) Most fibres are twisted or spun into yarn before the construction of fabrics - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fabric Characteristics

Fibres FabricsHow do we make fabrics?Some fibres can be used directly to make fabrics (eg felting)

Most fibres are twisted or spun into yarn before the construction of fabrics

Yarn is a long continuous length of interlocked fibres, suitable for use in the production of textiles, sewing, crocheting, knitting, weaving, embroidery and ropemaking

Types of YarnsYarn typeDefinitionYarn CharacteristicsEnd-use ApplicationsStaple spun yarnMade from staple fibres cotton or wool or manufactured fibres cut into small lengthsUneven, weak yarn with poor lustre and durabilityGood elasticity, resiliency and absorbencyApparel and furnishingsMonofilament YarnMade from one filament of a manufactured fibre (rayon, polyester, nylon)Fine and strong yarn with good lustre and durabilityInelastic, poor resiliency and absorbencyHosiery and invisible sewing threadMultifilament YarnMade from two or more filaments of a manufactured fibre (rayon, polyester, nylon)Even, strong yarn with good lustre and durabilityMedium elasticity and resiliency, slightly absorbentEvening wear and lingerieYarn Twist- The twisting involved is the most important factor in determining the properties of the yarnWithout twist, the yarn would have no strengthCan be twisted in clockwise direction (S-twist) or anticlockwise (Z-twist) directionLight is reflected in opposite ways and can be used alternately to create lustrous stripes in the fabric

Single YarnProduced during the first stage of the spinning processPly YarnFormed by twisting two or more single yarns 8 twisted yarns = 8 plyStronger and thicker than single yarnCord YarnFormed by twisting ply yarns togetherVery strongBlended YarnWhen two or more different fibre yarns are twisted togetherLets have a Yarn!!!!The manufacturing process:Once the yarn has been spun or twisted, there are a number of ways to turn it into cloth or fabric. Some examples are:WeavingKnittingKnottingFelting bondingWeavingThe interlacing of two sets of yarns at right angles to each other

Lengthwise Grain WARP

Crosswise Grain - WEFTTypes of Weaves

Plain more interlacing and increased stability and durability

Twill identified by the diagonal lines in the weave. Yarns are usually spaced closed together creating a strong and most durable fabric (eg. denim, drill)

Satin yarns float over a number of yarns from the opposite direction. Encourages lustre in the fabric due to the longer interlacings.

Pile achieved with the use of extra Warp or Weft yarns within the ground weave to give thickness and texture. This pile can be left as is or cut depending on the desired result. Increases absorbent abilities.

Refer to page 302 of your textbook for further information.KnittingThe process of making fabrics by forming rows of interlinked loops of yarn, with each hoop dependent upon another to prevent it from coming undone.Warp knitting interlooping along the length of the fabric - usually in an industrial setting/scale - more stable, less absorbent, less distortion of fabricWeft knitting interlooping across the width of the fabric - can be in an industrial or domestic setting/scale - less stable, distorts more easily, more absorbent

Fabric CharacteristicsFabrics can be described by their characteristics or special features. These characteristics should be considered whenever:- we use fabrics to make textile items for the home- we want to wear fabrics- we need to wash or clean fabricsNOTE: Especially when choosing the fabric for your assessment.......

The special characteristics of one particularfibre or fabric will make it more suitable for some jobs than others.

TextureThe way a fabric feelsThick or thinHarsh or softRough or smoothStiff or flexibleFine or coarse

StrengthHow strong a fabric isWeak (wool)Weak when wet (rayon)Strong (cotton)Stronger when wet (cotton)Very strong (nylon, polyester)

LustreHow shiny a fabric isDull/matt (wool)Shiny (poplin)Very shiny (satin)

Moisture AbsorbencyHow well the fabric will absorb waterNone (waterproofed)Low (nylon)Holds a lot but absorbs slowly (wool)Very high (cotton, linen)

ElasticityHow well a fibre or fabric will stretch and return to its original shapeLow stretch (twill weave)Will stretch, but wont go backStretches and goes back in original length (lycra)

Resilience is the ability to return to the original form.

Heat ConductionHow a fabric conducts heatWill not conduct heat = warmer to wear(wool in garments traps heat)Will conduct heat away = cooler to wear(cotton garments cooler in summer)

Crease ResistanceHow well a fabric recovers from creases after washingPoor (pure cotton, rayon)Average (wool creases fall out)Good recovery (polyester, drip-dry cottons)

FlammabilityHow easily a fabric burnsVery easily (cotton, rayon, open weaves, hairy fabrics)Low (polyester, nylon melt)Average (wool)Poor (flame proofed fabrics, asbestos)

Colour FastnessHow well the fabric keeps its colourFades in the sun (cotton)Fades in sea water and sun (dyes in lycra)Discolours in the sun (nylon)Some dyes run in hot water or with perspiration

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