fibres to fabrics

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  • 1. FibrestoFabricsDesign TechnologyTextilesMs Fowler

2. Fabric ConstructionMost fabrics are made by weaving orknitting yarns, although non-wovenfabrics are made by bonding orfelting fibres together.A fabrics appearance, propertiesand end use can be affected by theway it was constructed. 3. Fibre to Product Flow Chart 4. Woven Fabric ConstructionWoven fabrics are made up of a weft - the yarngoing across the width of the fabric - and a warp -the yarn going down the length of the loom. Theyarns are inter-locked together. The side of the fabric where the wefts are double-backed to form a non-fraying edge is called the selvedge. 5. Plain Weave Fabric In plain-weave fabric the warp and weft are aligned so that they form a simple criss- cross pattern. Plain-weave is strong and hardwearing, so its used for fashion and furnishing fabrics. 6. Twill Weave Fabric In twill-weave fabric the crossings of weft and warp are offset to give a diagonal pattern on the fabric surface. Its strong, drapes well and is used for jeans, jackets and curtains. 7. Satin Weave Fabric In satin-weave fabric there is a complex arrangement of warp and weft threads, which allows longer float threads either across the warp or the weft. The long floats mean the light falling on the yarn doesnt scatter and break up, like on a plain-weave. The reflected light creates a smooth, lustrous (shiny) surface commonly called satin. The reverse side is invariably dull and non-shiny. Weave variations include jacquard and damask. 8. Knitted Fabric Construction Knitted fabrics are made up of single or multiple lengths of continuous yarn on a knitting machine or with knitting needles.The yarns are inter- looped together. There are two types of knitted fabrics: weft- knitted and warp-knitted. 9. Weft Knitted Fabric Weft-knitted fabric is made by looping together long lengths of yarn. It can be made by hand or machine. The yarn runs in rows across the fabric. If a stitch is dropped it will ladder down the length of the fabric. The fabric is stretchy and comfortable and is used for socks, T-shirts and jumpers. 10. Warp Knitted Fabric In warp-knitted fabric the loops interlock vertically along the length of the fabric. Warp knits are slightly stretchy and do not ladder. Warp-knitted fabric is made by machine. It is used for swimwear, underwear and geotextiles. 11. Non-Woven FabricsFelted FabricsWool felt is a non-wovenfabric made from animal hair orwool fibres matted togetherusing moisture, heat andpressure.Felt has no strength, drape orelasticity but it is warm anddoes not fray.Wool felt is expensive.It is used for hats and slippersand in handcrafts. 12. Non-Woven FabricsBonded FabricsBonded-fibre fabrics are madefrom webs of synthetic fibresbonded together with heat oradhesives.They are cheap to produce butnot as strong as woven or knittedfabrics.Bonded-fibre fabrics are mainlyused for interlining.They are easy to sew, creaseresistant, do not fray and arestable when washing and drycleaning. 13. Combination (Smart) Fabrics Modern and smart fabrics are designed to maximise characteristics such as lightness, breathability, waterproofing etc, or to react to heat or light. They are usually manufactured using microfibres. Combination Fabrics List and Properties 14. Technology in TextilesTextiles manufacturers use new technological developments toimprove fabrics by giving them new properties. These might bedeveloped for a special reason, but then adapted to be used ineveryday products. For example: Memory foam moulds to the users shape and can return to its original state. It was originally developed for NASA astronauts and is now used in memory-foam mattresses and seats. Smart-shape-memory alloy returns to its original shape when heated. Smart memory fibres are woven with nylon to make smart-memory shirts that dont need ironing. Fastskin is used in swimsuits to simulate the texture of sharkskin. It increases a swimmers speed by reducing drag through water.

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