ferroelectric devices by kenji uchino

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A book about ferroelectric devices, its application, types and processes

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Ceramic n Engineering: Properties, Processing, and Use in Design. d Edition, Revised and Expanded, David rich er so^ W. 2. ~ntro~uction Engineering Materials: Behavior, Properties, and Selection, G. to1.

olidifiedAlloys:Processes

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~ t r u c t ~ r e sApplications, e d ~ e d by0

inforced Ceramics for Structural Applications,

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5. Thermal Analysis of Ceramics, robe^ F. S ~ e y e r tion and Wear of Ceramics,d ~ e d Said~ a h a n ~ j r e by hanical Properties of Metallic Composites, edjfed S ~ o ~ jOchjaj by ro 8. Chemical Processing of Ceramics, d ~ e d B ~ ~ r a 1. Lee and ~ ~ ~J. a r d e by nd A. Pope 9. HandbookofAdvancedMaterialsTesting, ed~ed ~ i c ~ o / a sC ~ e r e ~ j by P, s j n o and Paul~.C h e r e ~ j s i n o ~ ~ I O . Ceramic Processing and Sintering,M. N. R a h ~ ~ a n 11. Composites Engineering Handbook,~ d ~ by P. K. e d 12. Porosity of Ceramics, Roy Rice W. 13. Intermetallic and Ceramic Coatings, e d ~ e d ~afendra aho of re and 7: S. by B.on Techniques: Technological Applications, e d ~ e d K. 6 by . eering Materials: Impact, Reliabili~, Control, e d ~ e d and by

International Center for Actuat~rsan^ Trans~ucers ~ I C T ~ Pennsylvania State ~niversity e P ~ , ~niversity ~ r Pennsylvani~

M A R C E L

D E K K E R

This book is printed on acid-free paper. Marcel Dekker, Inc. NY 270 Madison Avenue, New York, 1001 6 212-685-4540 tel: 21 2-696-9000~ fax: Marcel Dekker AC Hutgasse 4, Postfach 8 12, CH-400 1Basel, S ~ ~ e r l a n d tel: 41-61-261-8482; fax: 41-61-261-8896

The publisher offers discounts on this book when ordered in bulk quantities. For more information, write to Special Sales~rofessional Marketing athe~quarters the address above.

Neither this book nor any part may be reproduced or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, m i c r o ~ ~ ~ n g , andrecording,orbyanyinformation storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing f o the publisher. rm Current printing (last digit): l 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

Ferroelectrics can be utilized in various devices such ash - p e ~ ~ i v i t y ~g dielectrics, pyroelectric piezoelectric electrooptic and sensors, devices, devices PTC components.Theindustriesareproducinglargeamountsofsimpledevices,e.g. ceramic capacitors, piezoelectric igniters, buzzers and PTC e ~ s t o r continuously. th s But until now ferroelectric devices have failed to reach co~ercialization more in functionalcases.Inthelightsensor,forexample,semiconductivematerialsare superior to ferroelectrics in response speed and sensitivity. Magnetic devices are much more popular in the memory field, and liquid crystals are typically used for optical displays. Ferroelectric devices often fail to be developed in the cases where competitive materials exist. This is mainly due to a lack of systematic a c c ~ u l a t i o n of hndamental knowledge of the materials and developmental experiences on the devices.

Duringmy12-yearteaching periodon"FerroelectricDevices," I foundthatno suitable textbook is available in this particular field, except some professional books I decidedtowriteasingle-authored likemulti-authorpapercollections.Hence, textbook based on my lecture notes, including my device development philos~phy. This textbook introduces theoretical the backgroundferroelectric of devices, practical materials, device designs, drivelcontrol techniques and typical applications, andlooksforwardtothe hture progressinthisfield.Thoughthediscoveryof ferroelectricity i s relativelyold,sincethedevicedevelopmentisreallynewand interdisciplinary, it is probably impossible to cover all the recent studies in a limited page book. Therefore, I selected only important and basic ideas to understand how to design develop ferroelectric and the devices, puttingparticular a focus on thidthick film devices. Let me introduce contents. the Chapterintroduces overall 1 the background, "General view of ferroelectrics," followed by the theoretical background in Chapter 2, "Mat~ematicaltreatmentofferroelectrics."Chapter 3, "Devicedesigningand fabrication processes," provides practical designing manufacturing the and of devices. Capacitor applications described Chapter are in 4, "High permittivity devices,"Chapters 5 and 6 treat thidthick filmapplications,i.e."Ferroelectric memory devices" and "Pyroelectric devices," respectively. Chapter 7, "Piezoelectric devices" deals with piezoelectric actuators and ultrasonic motors as well as acoustic transducers and piezoelectric sensors. Optical devices such as light valves, displays, wave guides and bulk photovoltaic devices are described Chapter 8, "Electrooptic in devices." In Chapters 9 and 10, we learn basic concepts of "PTC materials" and

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iv

Preface

"Compositematerials,"andtheirdeviceapplications.FinallyinChapter11we discuss "Future of ferroelectric devices," in which the rnarket size is estimated, and the author's strategy for developing bestseller devices is introduced. This textbook was written for graduate students and industry engineers s ~ d or~ g working in the fields of electronic materials, optical materials and c o ~ ~ c a t i o n s , this text is designed for a course with precision machinery and robotics. Though thirty 75-~ninute lectures, the reader can learn the content by himselflherself aided by the availability of examples and problems. Critical review and content corrections on this book are highly appreciated. Send the i ~ f o ~ t i directed to Kenji Uchino at 134 Materials Research Laboratory, The on Pennsylva~aState University, University Park, 16802-4800. 814-865PA Fax: 2326, E-mail: KenjiUchino~PSU.EDU For the reader who needs detailed i n f o ~ t i o n smart piezoelectric actuators and on sensors, "Piezoelectric Actuators and Ultrasonic Motors" pages) authored byK. (349 Uchino, (Kluwer Adademic Publishers 1997) recomended. is Even though the author this I sole am of book,nevertheless it includes the contributions ofmany others. I express my gratitude tomy ICAT center faculty who have generously given me their advice and help during the writing, particularly to Dr. U m a ~ ~ e l e g ~who,worked out all the problems. Dr. Yulcio Ito (now in Rutgers du University)allowedmetousesomeparagraphsandfiguresfromourcoauthored papers. Specific acknowledgement is given to Professor J a p e Giniewicz, Indiana Universi~ Pennsylvania, who reviewed and criticized the entire manuscript and of provided linguistic corrections. Kenj i Uchino

iiivii

viii

ix

1.2 1.3 1.4 1 .S 1.6

Origin of ~pontaneous Polarization Origin of Field ~nduced Strain Electrooptic EBect Example of Ferroelectrics 18 Applications of Fe~oelectrics

1 2 4 9 13

20 23 38

2.1 Tensor Representation of Physical Properties ~ h e n o ~2 n o l o ~ y 2. e of Ferroelectricity

L

Resigning 3.1 3.2 Resigning 3.3 3.4 3.5 Capacitors 4.1 Capacitors 4.2 4.3 4.4

Material Fa~rication Processes of Ceramics Device Size Grain Effect on Ferroelec~icity Ferroelectric Domain ~ontributions Ceramic Chip Hybrid Substrate Relaxor F e ~ o e l ~ t r i c s

57 67 73 84 89

5

106 108 108 119 126V

Contents131 138 139 145

6.3

.2

Temperat~e~n~are~ Light Sensors Infrared Image Sensors

iezoelectric Vib

18 5

161 174 176 180 197

230 239 243 248 250 255 257 260 269 275 276 279 283

221 222

10.2

CompositeEffects

3~~

ion emanent ~ o l ~ z a t i o n yroelectric coefficient Lorentz factor elative ~ e ~ i t t i v i tdielectric constant y, tranition t~mPerature) Strain Spontaneous strain Stress

Electrotric~ve coefficients mechanical co~pling factor tranmiion coefficient ive index lmary electrooptic coefficient Secondary electrooptic coefficient hase ret~dation

Q. 1.

2.

4. 5.

3.

6, 7.

8. 9. 1Q. 11.

Course Explanation & Prerequisite Knowledge Check General Viewof Ferroelectrics ~ a ~ e m a t i cTreatment of Ferroelectrics al Device Designing and Fabrication Processes High ~ e ~ i t t i v iDielectrics ty Ferroelectric Memory Devices Pyroelectric Devices Piezoelectric Devices Electrooptic Devices PTC Materials Composite Materials Future of Ferroelectric Devices ~ e v i e w l ~ ~ ~

1 Time 4 Times 4 Times 3 Times 2 Times 1 Time 1 Time 7 Times 2 Times 1 Time: 2 Times 1 Time 1 Time

viii

In order to understand ferroelectric devices, some prerequisite knowledge is expected. to solve the following questions without seeing the answers the next page. on Q1Q2

escribe the definitions of elastic stifness c and c o ~ ~ l i u n S, eusing a c stress X - strain x relation. Indicate a shear stress on following the square.

Q3 Q4 Q5

6Q7Q8

~ ~escribe s~~~ v ~ l o cvi in a material with mass density p and elastic the compliance SE. Calculatethe capaci~nce of a capacitor with area S and electrode gapt C filled with a material of relutive ~ e r ~ ~ t E i v i ~ t. density Calculate the ~ ~ l u r i z a t i o nof a material with dipole dipole momentqu (Gm). escribe the C ~ r i e - ~ law of s e ~ ~ relative p e ~ i t t i v i t yE using a C ~ r i e , Weiss temperature T and a Cu~e-Weiss o constant C. Describethelightvelocityin a material with a refractive index n (c: light velocity in vacuum). Indicate the work function in the following energy band of a metal.eve1

of

Inid0

Q9 Q10

There is a voltage supply with an internal impedance 2 . 0 Indicate the external impedance2 to obtain the maximum output power. 1 Calculate the induced polarization P under an external stress X in a ~ i e z o e l e c t ~ c a piezoelectric constantd. with

ix

X

Prerequisite Knowledge

(Correct rate moreth

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