Facials Chapter 23 Learning Objectives Explain the pertinent information to gather during a client consultation and skin analysis before performing facial.

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FacialsChapter 231Learning ObjectivesExplain the pertinent information to gather during a client consultation and skin analysis before performing facial treatments.Identify examples of contraindication that prohibit performing facial treatments.Determine the difference between skin type and skin condition.Name the different categories of skin care products used in facial treatments.(continues)2Explain the different categories of skin care products used in facial treatments, and provide examples of each. Define why massage is used during a facial.Name and briefly describe the five categories of massage manipulations.Name and describe two types of electrical machines used in facial treatments.Learning Objectives (continued)(continues)3Explain how the two types of electrical machines add value to a facial.Know the difference between galvanic and high-frequency treatments used in facial services.Explain how light therapy is used to treat the skin.Discuss how aromatherapy is used in the basic facial.Learning Objectives (continued)WHY STUDY FACIALS?Providing skin care services to clients is extremely rewarding, and will help busy clients to relax, improves their appearance, and help them feel better about themselves.Knowing the basics of skin analysis and basic information about skin care products will enable you to offer your clients advice when they ask for it.Although you will not treat a skin disease, you must be able to recognize adverse skin conditions and refer clients to seek medical advice when needed, from a physician.Learning the basic techniques of facials and facial massage will give you a good overview of, and an ability to perform, these foundational services.You may enjoy this category of services and may consider specializing in skin care services. This studywill create a perfect basis for making that decision.

Besides being very relaxing, facial treatments can offer many improvements to the appearance of the skin.Proper skin care can make oily skin look cleaner and healthier, dry skin look and feel more moist and supple, and aging skin look smoother, firmer, and less wrinkled.A combination of good salon facial treatments and effective, individualized home care will show visible results.IntroductionINTRODUCTIONGood skin care can make a big difference in the way skin looks and in the way a client feels about his or her appearance. A facial, also known as a facial treatment, is a professional skin treatment that improves the condition and appearance of the skin. Besides being very relaxing, facial treatments can offer many improvements to the appearance of the skin. Proper skin care can make oily skin look cleaner and healthier, dry skin look and feel more moist and supple, and aging skin look smoother, firmer, and less wrinkled. A combination of good salon facial treatments and effective, individualized home care will show visible results.

LESSON ACTIVITY 1Have the students perform a client consultation on one another using the questions off of the client intake form for reference. The purpose of the exercise is to get the students to feel comfortable with asking investigative questions. Have a classroom discussion about the task that was performed, how the students felt, and what they could do differently in the future.6Activity was not outlined in notes below. Copy and pasted notes that were on LP page3. Conduct a Consultation and Skin AnalysisAnalysis determines skin type, skin condition, and needed treatment.Consultation allows you to ask questions about clients health and skin care history, and to advise client about needed home-care regimen.7CONDUCT A CONSULTATION AND SKIN ANALYSIS Skin analysis determines skin type, skin condition, and needed treatment. The consultation allows you to ask questions about the clients health and skin care history and to advise the client about a home care regimen.

Client Intake FormUsed to determine if client has any contraindications that might prevent skin treatmentsCLIENT INTAKE FORMBefore the beginning of the consultation and analysis, your client will complete a client intake form. The main purpose of client intake form is to determine whether the client has any contraindications that might prohibit certain skin treatments, procedures, or products (sometimes referred to as a health screening).

8The core text p. 767 does not say the client is to document their contraindications. Changed wording below to match text languiageContraindicationsIsotretinoin (Accutane)Retin-A (Tretinoin), Reno Tazorac, or DifferinPregnancyMetal bone pins or platesPacemakers or other heart conditionsKnown allergies(continues)9CONTRAINDICATIONSNote: Have students follow along using Table 23-01 found on page 768 of Milady Standard Cosmetology.

A contraindication is a condition the client has, or a treatment the client is undergoing, that might cause a negative side effect during a facial treatment.Isotretinoin (Accutane): This oral medication is used to treat cystic acne and causes thinning of the skin all over the body. Do not give treatments for at least six months after stopping the drug. Avoid exfoliation, peeling, or stimulating treatments. Use of this product can cause the skin to blister or peel off during waxing.Retin-A (Tretinoin), Reno Tazorac, or Differin: Avoid treatments that would include exfoliating, stimulating, or peeling. Use of this product can cause the skin to blister or peel off during waxing.Pregnancy: Use no electrical treatments or any other treatment without a physicians written permission. Pregnant women may develop sensitivities.Metal bone pins or plates: If a client has metal bone pins or plates, avoid all electrical treatments as electricity may affect metal.Pacemakers or other heart conditions: Avoid all electrical treatments. Electricity can possibly affect rhythms and pacemakers.Known allergies: Avoid known allergens, fragrances as an allergic reaction can occur.Seizures or epilepsyUse of oral steroidsAutoimmune diseases such as lupusDiabetesUse of blood thinnersSensitive, redness-prone skinOpen sores, herpes simplex (cold sores)Recent facial surgery or laser treatmentContraindications (continued)10CONTRAINDICATIONS (continued)Seizures or epilepsy: Avoid electrical and light treatments as it could trigger seizure reaction.Use of oral steroids such as prednisone: Avoid stimulating or exfoliating treatments or waxing. Steroids can cause thinning of the skin which could result in blistering or injury.Autoimmune diseases such as lupus: Avoid any harsh or stimulating treatments. The reactions can be unpredictable in some cases.Diabetes: Diabetics heal slowly; get a physician's approval before treatment. There are no specific reactions; however, cautions should be taken.Blood thinners: Extractions should be done with physicians permission as well as waxing. Blood thinners may cause bleeding or bruising.Sensitive, redness-prone skin: Avoid heat, harsh scrubs, mechanical treatment, and stimulating massages. It may aggravate redness.Open sores, herpes simplex (cold sores): Avoid all treatments until clear with doctor. These sores could spread or flare up and could be a sign of an infectious disease.Recent facial surgery or laser treatment: Treat with physicians permission only.Record-KeepingClient dataClients occupationClients date of birthMedical conditionsMedicationsPrevious treatment Home care recommendations11RECORD-KEEPINGDuring the consultation, keep the client intake form and service record card with you to record any necessary information from one card to the other if needed. The service record card should contain the following information:Client data: Name, address, and phone numberClients occupationClients date of birth: Used to determine signs of premature aging of the skin.Medical conditions that might affect treatmentMedications: Any medications the client is using including topical drugs for skinIf client has had a previous treatment. If they have, what treatments were performed? Information as to whether the client has had facials before and, if so, what kind of treatments were performed.Information on any skin care products the client is currently using.Notation of how the client was referred to the salon.Observations on the clients skin type, skin condition, and any abnormalities of the skin.Home care recommendations: Do not hesitate to recommend services and products that will be beneficial to the client.Determine Skin Type During the Skin AnalysisRead health screening form.Have client change into smock.Seat client in chair.Drape client.Have client remove jewelry.Recline client in chair.Wash hands.Warm cleansing milk and apply.Apply cotton eye pads to clients eyes.(continues)12DETERMINE SKIN TYPE DURING THE SKIN ANALYSISAt this point, you have carefully read the clients client intake form and discussed your questions with the client. During the first consultation and before every subsequent facial treatment, it is important to perform a thorough analysis of the clients skin. Read health screening form.Have client change into smock.Seat client in chair.Drape client: Use a hair cap, headband, or towels.Have client remove jewelry.Recline client in chair.Wash hands.Warm cleansing milk and apply.Apply cotton eye pads to clients eyes.Examine with magnifying lamp.Observe visible pores.Obvious pores: oily skinLack of pores: dry, or alipidic skinDetermine Skin Type During the Skin Analysis (continued)

13DETERMINE SKIN TYPE DURING THE SKIN ANALYSIS (continued)Look through a magnifying lamp.A magnifying lamp is a magnifying lens surrounded by a circular light, sometimes called loupes or mag lights, are used for skin analysis, close hair removal including tweezing, electrolysis, and waxing.Observe pore size.The amount of sebum produced by the sebaceous glands determines the size of the pores. Obvious pores indicate oily skin; lack of pores indicates dry (alipidic skin).Skin Types

14SKIN TYPESOily: Oily skin produces too much sebum and will have large pores. Skin will appear shiny or even greasy. Pores may be clogged from dead cells building up in hair follicles. Open comedones are a mixture of solidified sebum and dead cell buildup stuck in the follicles. Closed comedones are small bumps just underneath the skin surface. The difference between closed and open comedones is the size of the follicle opening or ostium. Dry or alipidic: Alipidic means lack of lipids. Alipidic skin becomes dry or dehydrated because it does not produce enough sebum.Normal: Normal skin has even pore distribution. It is very soft with a smooth surface and lacks wrinkles. Normal skin is unusual.Combination dry: Obvious pores down the center of the face; pores are not visible or become smaller toward the outer edges of the face. Pores may be clogged on the nose, chin, and center of the forehead and dry, nonvisible toward the outside edges of the face.Combination oily: Wider distribution of obvious or large pores down the center of the face extending to the outer cheeks. Pores become smaller toward the edges of the face. There are comedones, clogged pores, or obvious pores in the center of the face Pores are very large in all areas. Acne is considered a skin type because it is hereditary. Presence of numerous, open and closed comedones, clogged pores, and red papules and pustules (pimples).Acne15ACNEPores are very large in all areas. Acne is considered a skin type because it is hereditary. There is a presence of numerous, open and closed comedones, clogged pores, and red papules and pustules (pimples).The follicles will become clogged with bacteria and dead skin cells. With the dead skin cells covering the pore, the anaerobic bacteria will thrive and cause a pimple.Analysis of Skin ConditionsDehydrationHyperpigmentationSensitive skinRosaceaDilated capillaries (telangiectasias, couperose)16ANALYSIS OF SKIN CONDITIONSConditions are generally treatable, not hereditary, and are associated with a particular skin type.Dehydration: This is indicated by flaky areas or skin that wrinkles easily on the surface. Gently pinching the skin surface may result in the formation of many fine lines. This indicates dehydration. Dehydrated skin may be caused by lack of care, improper skin care products, sun exposure, etc. Treat by using hydrators appropriate for the skin type.Hyperpigmentation: Dark blotches of color; most are caused by sun exposure or hormone imbalances. The use of mild exfoliants, sunscreen, and avoidance of sun exposure can help.Sensitive skin: Characterized by a thin, red-pink look; the skin turns red and is easily inflamed by skin care products. Avoid use of strong products.Rosacea: Rosacea is a chronic hereditary disorder that can be indicated by constant or frequent facial blushing.Dilated capillaries: This is also known as telangectasias or couperose. Avoid use of treatment that releases heat or stimulates the skin.Aging and Sun-Damaged SkinAging skin indicated by loss of elasticity. Wrinkles may appear. Sun-damaged skin hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and sagging skin will be present.AGING AND SUN-DAMAGED SKINAging skinIndicated by loss of elasticity; the skin tends to sag in areas around the eyes and jaw line. Wrinkles may appear. Treatments that hydrate and exfoliate will improve skin appearance.Sun-damaged skinThe skin has been chronically exposed to sun over the clients lifetime. Hyperpigmentation, wrinkles, and sagging skin will be present.

17Categorize Skin Care ProductsCleansersCleansing milkFoaming cleansersToners (fresheners or astringents)Lower pHRemove excess cleanserHydrate and soothe

18CATEGORIZE SKIN CARE PRODUCTS Most skin care products are designed for specific skin types or conditions. There are several major categories.Cleansers: Formulated to cleanse the surface of skin and remove makeup.Cleansing milks: Nonfoaming lotions designed to cleanse dry and sensitive skin types and remove makeup; they can be applied with hands but must be removed with dampened facial sponges, a soft cloth, or cotton pads.Foaming cleansers: Wash-off type products; they contain surfactants (also known as detergents) that cause the product to form and rinse easily.

Toners: Also known as fresheners or astringents.Lower pHRemove excess cleanserHydrate and sootheThey may contain an exfoliating ingredient to help remove dead cells. Some contain a higher alcohol content for oilier skin types. They are applied with cotton pads. Alcohol-free toners can be sprayed on the face.

ExfoliantsMechanical exfoliantsGranular scrubsGommagesMicrodermabrasion scrubsChemical exfoliantsSalon AHA exfoliantsPrior home use required

EXFOLIANTSExfoliants are products that help bring about exfoliation or remove excess cells from the skin surface. Removing dead skin cells makes skin look smoother and clearer.Mechanical exfoliants: These work by physically bumping off dead cell buildup.Granular ScrubsGommages: Gommage is a French word meaning erase. It is a peeling cream that is rubbed off, removing dead skin cells through friction.Microdermabrasion: These are mechanical exfoliation scrubs that contain aluminum oxide crystals. Chemical exfoliants: These contain chemicals that loosen or dissolve dead cell buildup. Popular exfoliating chemicals are alphahydroxy acids which dissolve the bonds and intercellular cement between cells.Salon AHA exfoliants: These are often referred to as peels. Salon products contain 20 to 30 percent alphahydroxy acids.Prior home use required: They shouldnt be used in the salon unless the client has been using a 10 percent product at home for at least two weeks prior to the salon treatment.

19Granular scrubs are not listed in core text page 775-776.When to Avoid Mechanical PeelingSkin with visible capillariesThin skin that reddens easilyOlder skin that is thin and bruises easilySkin being medically treatedAcne-prone skin with inflamed papules and pustules20WHEN TO AVOID MECHANICAL PEELINGSkin with visible capillaries (which indicate fragile blood vessels)Thin skin that reddens easilyOlder skin if it is thin and bruises easilySkin being medically treated with isotretinoin (retinoic acid or Retin-A), azelaic acid, adapalene (Differin), alpha hydroxy acid (AHA), or salicylic acidAcne-prone skin if it has inflamed papules and pustules

Caution! You must have hands-on, supervised training before attempting chemical exfoliation treatments.

Enzyme PeelsUse keratolytic enzymes that dissolve keratin protein in surface cellsDerived from papaya, pineapple, and beef by-products.Cream type Powder type

21ENZYME PEELSThese are keratolytic enzymes that dissolve keratin protein in surface cells. Enzyme products are often derived from papaya fruit (papain) or pineapple (bromelain). They may also be made of beef by-products (pancreatin). Cream type: Usually contain papain; they are applied to the skin, allowed to dry to a crust, and then rolled off.Powder type: Mixed with water and applied to the face; it does not dry and can even be used with steaming.

Proper exfoliation may improve the appearance of the skin in the following ways:Reduce clogged pores and oily skinPromote skin smoothnessIncrease moisture content and hydrationReduce hyperpigmentationDecrease uneven skin colorEliminates or softens wrinkles and fine linesIncreases elasticity

Moisturizers and SunscreensMoisturizersDry skinOily skinSunscreens and day protection productsSerums and ampoulesMassage creams

MOISTURIZERS AND SUNSCREENSThese help increase moisture content of skin surface. They are mixtures of humectants (hydrators/water-binding agents) and emollients (hold moisture in).Dry skin: Moisturizers for dry skin use heavier cream and contain more emollient.Oily skin: Moisturizers for oily skin use lotions that contain smaller amounts of emollient.Sunscreens and day protection productsDay protection products and sunscreens are necessary to help prevent premature aging and skin cancers. Daily moisturizers should contain broad-spectrum sunscreens. Night treatment on the other hand are heavier than day products and may contain a higher level of conditioning ingredientsSerums and Ampoules: Concentrated products that contain higher amounts of ingredients; they are applied under moisturizer or sunscreen. Massage creams: These are lubricants to make the skin slippery during massage. They often contain oils or petrolatum.

22MasksClay-based oil-absorbingCream contain oils and emollientsGel used for sensitive/dehydrated skinAlginate often seaweed-basedParaffin used with treatment creamsModelage beneficial for dry, mature skin23MASKSMasks are a combination of ingredients for the purpose of toning, tightening, hydrating, and nourishing the skin.Clay-based masks: Oil-absorbing, used for oily and combination skin.Cream masks: Often used for dry skin as they contain oils and emollients and humectants.Gel masks: Used for sensitive or dehydrated skin; contain hydrators and soothing ingredients.Alginate masks: Often seaweed-based; they can come in powder form to be mixed with water or serums. These will form a rubberized texture. A treatment cream, which is a specialty product designed to facilitate change in the skins appearance, or a serum is generally applied under alginate masks.Paraffin wax masks: They are melted at a little higher than body temperature before application. They quickly cool to lukewarm temperature and harden to a candle-like consistency. They are used with treatment creams. Eye pads and gauze are used to protect facial and eyebrow hair.Modelage masks: These contain special crystals of gypsum, a plaster-like ingredient. They are used with treatment cream. The product hardens on the skin; setting time is about 20 minutes. They are beneficial for dry, mature skin or skin that looks dull or lifeless. Massage is not recommended before or after modelage masks. Learn the Basic Techniques of a Facial MassageMassage is the manual or mechanical manipulation of the head or body by rubbing, pinching, kneading, tapping, and other movements to increase metabolism and circulation, promote absorption, and relieve pain.LEARN THE BASIC TECHNIQUES OF A FACIAL MASSAGEBasic massage manipulationsMassage pressure should always be applied from insertion (where a muscle is attached to another muscle or a movable bone or joint) and move towards the origin (fixed attachment).

24Basic Massage ManipulationsEffleuragePtrissageFullingFrictionChuckingRollingWringing

(continues)25BASIC MASSAGE MANIPULATIONS Effleurage: A light, continuous stroking movement applied in a slow, rhythmic manner with the fingers (digital effleurage) or the palms (palmar effleurage).Ptrissage: Kneading movement performed by lifting, squeezing, and pressing the tissue.Fulling: A form of ptrissage in which the tissue is grasped, gently lifted, and spread out; this technique is used mainly for massaging the arms.Friction: A deep rubbing movement in which you apply pressure on the skin with your fingers or palm while moving it over an underlying structure and includes movements such as:Chucking is grasping the flesh firmly in one hand and moving the hand up and down along the bone while the other hand keeps the arm or leg in a steady position.Rolling is pressing and twisting the tissues with a fast back-and-forth movement.Wringing is a vigorous movement in which the hands, placed a little distance apart on both sides of the clients arm or leg and working downward, apply a twisting motion against the bones in the opposite direction.TapotementSlappingHacking

Basic Massage Manipulations (continued)

Vibration26BASIC MASSAGE MANIPULATIONS (continued)Tapotement: Is a percussion movement that consists of a tapping, slapping or hacking motion.Slapping movements, keeping your wrists flexible allows your palms to come in contact with the skin in light, firm, and rapid slapping movements. One hand follows the other. With each slapping stroke, lift the flesh slightly.Hacking is a chopping movement performed with the edges of the hands. Both the wrists and hands move alternately in fast, light, firm, and flexible motions against the skin. Hacking and slapping movements are used only to massage the back, shoulders, and arms.Vibration is a rapid shaking of the body part while the balls of the fingertips are pressed firmly on the point of application.

Caution! Do not massage a client with high blood pressure, a heart condition, or a stroke victim. If the client has arthritis, be careful to avoid vigorous massage of the joints. Maintain constant communication with the client during the massage and adjust your touch according to his/her needs.

Physiological Effects of MassageMotor pointsVaried locationsRelaxation27PHYSIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF MASSAGEMotor points: Points on the skin over the muscle where pressure or stimulation will cause contraction of the muscle. Every muscle has a motor point.Locations vary due to body structure.Relaxation achieved through light, firm, slow, rhythmic movements, or very slow, light hand vibrations over motor points for a short time. Benefits of MassageSkin nourishmentSoftness and pliabilityIncreased blood circulationGland stimulationStimulated and strengthened muscle fibersSoothed and rested nervesRelieved pain28BENEFITS OF MASSAGESkin and all structures are nourished.Skin becomes softer and more pliable.Circulation of blood is increased.Activity of skin glands is stimulated.Muscle fibers are stimulated and strengthened.Nerves are soothed and rested.Pain is sometimes relieved.

LESSON ACTIVITY 2The following exercises are suggested to keep the estheticians hands and wrists functioning properly without any tightness or pain. When performing services with the same repetitive motions, the hands and wrists can become very tight and sore. Exercising this body part will help keep the wrists and hands moving freely.

In order to exercise their hands, have students move their fingers in the following manners: Playing the piano move each finger from thumb to little finger as if tapping in a rhythm.Palm press press palms together at chest level and bend the wrists back and forth.Massage fingers rub each finger individually on opposite hand.Wrist circles rotate hands in a circular movement in both directions for 20 counts.

After performing these exercises, have students discuss how they feel.

29Facial ManipulationsChin movementLower cheeksMouth, nose, and cheek movementsLinear movement over the foreheadCircular movement over the foreheadCrisscross movement

(continues)FACIAL MANIPULATIONSWhen performing facial manipulations, using an even tempo, or rhythm, is relaxing. Do not remove your hands from the clients face once you have started. Chin movement: Lift the chin, using a slight pressure.Lower cheeks: Using a circular movement, rotate from chin to ears.Mouth, nose, and cheek movements: Follow the diagram.Linear movement over the forehead: Slide fingers to the temples and then stroke up to hairline, gradually moving your hands across the forehead to the right eyebrow.Circular movement over the forehead: Starting at the eyebrow line, work across the middle of the forehead and then toward the hairline.Crisscross movement: Start at one side of forehead and work back.

30Stroking (headache) movementBrow and eye movementNose and upper cheek movementMouth and nose movementLip and chin movementOptional movementFacial Manipulations (continued)

(continues)FACIAL MANIPULATIONS (continued)Stroking (headache) movement: Slide your fingers toward the center of the forehead and then draw your fingers, with slight pressure, toward the temples and rotate.Brow and eye movement: Place your middle fingers at the inner corners of the eyes and your index fingers over the brows. Slide them toward the outer corners of the eyes, under the eyes, and then back to the inner corners.Nose and upper cheek movement: Slide your fingers down the nose. Apply a rotary movement across the cheeks to the temples and rotate gently. Slide your fingers under the eyes and then back to the bridge of the nose.Mouth and nose movement: Apply a circular movement from the corners of the mouth up to the sides of the nose. Slide your fingers over the brows and then down to the corners of the mouth up to the sides of nose. Follow by sliding your fingers over the brows and down to the corners of the mouth again.Lip and chin movement: From the center of the upper lip, draw your fingers around the mouth, going under the lower lip and chin.Optional movement: Hold the head with your left hand, and draw the fingers of your right hand from under the lower lip and around mouth, moving to the center of the upper lip.31Lifting movement of the cheeksRotary movement of the cheeksLight tapping movementStroking movement of the neckCircular movement over the neck and chestFacial Manipulations (continued)

FACIAL MANIPULATIONS (continued)Lifting movement of the cheeks: Proceed from the mouth to the ears, and then from the nose to the top part of the ears.Rotary movement of the cheeks: Massage from the chin to the ear lobes, from the mouth to the middles of the ears, and from the nose to the top of the ears.Light tapping movement: Work from the chin to the earlobe, from the mouth to the ear, from the nose to the top of the ear, and then across the forehead. Repeat on the other side.Stroking movement of the neck: Apply light upward strokes over the front of the neck. Use heavier pressure on the sides of neck in downward strokes.Circular movement over the neck and chest: Starting at the back of the ears, apply a circular movement down the side of the neck, over the shoulders, and across the chest.32Chest, Back, and Neck ManipulationsChest and back movementShoulders and back movementBack massageCHEST, BACK, AND NECK MANIPULATIONSCaution! Check with your state regulatory agency before massaging the chest and back. Many state regulatory agencies limit a cosmetologists scope of practice to the face, neck, arms, legs, and shoulders.

Chest and back movement: Use a rotary movement across the upper chest and shoulders. Then slide your fingers to the base of the neck and rotate three times.Shoulders and back movement: Rotate the shoulders three times. Glide your fingers to the spine and then to the base of the neck. Apply circular movement up to the backs of the ears, and then slide your fingers to the fronts of the earlobes. Rotate three times.Back massage: To stimulate and relax the client, use your thumbs and bent index fingers to grasp the tissue at the back of the neck. Rotate six times. Repeat over the shoulders. Remove cream with tissues or a warm, moist towel. Dust the back lightly with talcum powder and smooth.33Know the Purpose of the Facial EquipmentFacial steamerBrushing machineSkin suction/cold spray

34FACIAL EQUIPMENTFacial steamer: Heats and produces a stream of warm steam that can be focused on the clients face or other areas of skin. The steamer will softens tissues, making the skin more receptive to moisturizers and treatments.Brushing machine: A rotating electric appliance with interchangeable brushes that can be attached to the rotating head. Heads come in different sizes and textures. Avoid brushing on clients using keratolytic drugs, with rosacea, sensitive skin, pustular acne, or other skin inflammation.Skin suction/cold spray: This is used to increase circulation and to jet-spray toners onto the skin. Do not use on sensitive or inflamed skin. It is often used to hydrate skin or remove mask treatments.

How Electrotherapy and Light Therapy Treat the SkinTypes of electrotherapyGalvanicHigh-frequencyNot to be used on clients with metal implants, pacemakers, heart disease, epilepsy, pregnancy, high blood pressure, fever, infection, insufficient nerve sensibility, open or broken skin, and fear of the procedureHOW ELECTROTHERAPY AND LIGHT THERAPY TREAT THE SKINCaution! Always check with your state regulatory agency to determine which electrical machines are approved for use in your state.

Galvanic and high frequency are examples of electrotherapy which is the use of electrical currents to treat the skin. Electrotherapy should never be administered on heart patients, clients with pacemakers, clients with metal implants, pregnant clients, clients with epilepsy or seizure disorders, clients who are afraid of electric current, or clients with open or broken skin. 35ElectrodeAn applicator for directing the electric current from the machine to the clients skin.

Galvanic machinesAnode: positiveCathode: negative

ELECTRODEThis is an applicator for directing the electric current from the machine to the clients skin.Galvanic machines have two positive electrodes called anode and a negative electrode called a cathode.Anode: Positive electrode to perform CataphoresisCathode: Negative electrode to perform Anaphoresis36Galvanic CurrentDesincrustation softens and emulsifies hardened sebum stuck in hair folliclesIontophoresis penetrates water-soluble products that contain ions into the skin

GALVANIC CURRENTAccomplishes two basic tasksDesincrustation: The process of softening and emulsifying hardened sebum stuck in pores.Iontophoresis: The process of using galvanic current to penetrate water-soluble products that contain ions into the skin.37MicrocurrentA type of galvanic treatment that uses a very low level of electrical current. It has many applications in skin care.Best known for helping to tone the skin, producing a lifting effect for aging skin that lacks elasticity.MICROCURRENTA type of galvanic treatment using a very low level of electrical current.It has many applications in skin careBest known for helping to tone the skin, producing a lifting effect for aging skin that lacks elasticity.

38High Frequency CurrentAn electrode is an applicator for directing electric current from machine to clients skin. Direct application: Applied directly to skin. Indirect application: Client holds electrode.Used to stimulate blood flow and help penetrate products.Can be used for acne-prone skin because of its germicidal effect.HIGH FREQUENCY CURRENTThis uses only one electrode. An electrode is an applicator for directing electric current from the machine to the clients skin. It was discovered by Nikolas Tesla. It is used to stimulate blood flow and help penetrate products. It can be used for acne-prone skin because of its germicidal effect. The most common electrode is the mushroom-shaped one.Direct application: The electrode is applied directly to the skin.Indirect application: The client holds the electrode creating an electrical stimulating massage. This is also called Viennese massage.39Light TherapyInfrared lamps used to heat skin and increase blood flowLight-emitting diode (LED) used to heal, minimize redness, warm lower level tissues, stimulate blood flow, help acne-prone skin

LIGHT THERAPYSeveral types of lights are used for skin care treatments.Infrared lamps: Used to heat skin and increase blood flow.LED: Light-emitting diode; this treatment uses concentrated light that flashes very rapidly. It helps with wound healing. In our field it is used to minimize redness, warm lower level tissues, stimulate blood flow, improve skin smoothness, and help acne-prone skin. Red lights are used to treat aging and redness; blue lights are used for acne-prone skin.

40MicrodermabrasionA type of mechanical exfoliation that involves shooting aluminum oxide or other crystals at the skin with a hand-held device that exfoliates dead cells.Produces fast, visible results.Treats surface wrinkles and aging skin.Requires extensive training.MICRODERMABRASIONMicrodermabrasion is a type of mechanical exfoliation. It uses a closed vacuum to shoot crystals onto the skin, bumping off cell buildup.

41Use Facials to Treat Basic and Specialty Skin TypesPreservative maintain health of facial skinCorrective correct some skin conditions such as dryness, oiliness, comedones, aging lines, and minor conditions of acne

USE FACIALS TO TREAT BASIC AND SPECIALTY SKIN TYPESA facial is one of the most enjoyable and relaxing services available in the salon. When clients receive them on a regular basis, the clients skin tone, texture, and appearance are noticeably improved.Facial treatments fall into one of the following categories:Preservative: Maintain the health of facial skinCorrective: Correct some skin conditions such as dryness, oiliness, comedones, aging lines, and minor conditions of acne

42Guidelines for Facial TreatmentsSpeak quietly and professionally.Explain benefits and answer questions.Provide quiet atmosphere.Work quietly and efficiently.Maintain clean environment.Follow systematic procedures.Warm hands.Keep nails smooth and short.Analyze skin.43GUIDELINES FOR FACIAL TREATMENTSFollow the guidelines below for a successful treatment and return facial client:Speak quietly and professionally.Explain benefits and answer questions.Provide a quiet atmosphere.Work quietly and efficiently. Maintain a clean environment.Follow systematic procedures.Warm your hands.Keep your nails smooth and short.Analyze the skin.

Basic Facial Application

gosphotodesign/Shutterstock.comBASIC FACIAL APPLICATIONThe steps for performing a basic facial are listed in Procedure 23-1. Some procedures may vary, however, so be guided by your instructor.

See Procedure 23-1, Basic Facial, found on page 796 of Milady Standard Cosmetology.44Special ProblemsThere are a number of special problems that must be considered when you are performing a facial.Dry skin caused by insufficient flow of sebumOily skin caused by hardened masses of sebum in sebaceous glands

45SPECIAL PROBLEMSThere are a number of special problems that must be considered when you are performing a facial. These include dry skin, oily skin and blackheads, and acne.

Dry skin: Caused by insufficient flow of sebum from the sebaceous glands. Facials for dry skin will help correct this condition.

See Procedure 23-2, Facial for Dry Skin, found on page 801 of Milady Standard Cosmetology.

Oily skin: Characterized by comedones which are caused by hardened masses of sebum formed in the ducts of the sebaceous glands (sometimes requires medical attention).

See Procedure 23-3, Facial for Oily Skin with Open Comedones (Blackheads), found on page 801 of Milady Standard Cosmetology.

Special Notes for Acne-Prone SkinLimited measures for acne: Reducing oiliness; working under medical supervision46SPECIAL NOTES FOR ACNE-PRONE SKINGenerally the cosmetologist is limited to skin cleansing; reducing oiliness by local applications; removing comedones; and using special medicated preparations. Work under the advisement of a physician.

See Procedure 23-4, Facial for Acne-Prone and Problem Skin, found on page 805 of Milady Standard Cosmetology.Facial Treatments for MenMore men are having facial treatments than ever before. Always moving with the pattern of the beardUsually these are downward and outward movements. Use sponges instead of cotton pads on a mans face.Cotton will get caught in beard hair. 47FACIAL TREATMENTS FOR MENMore men are having facial treatments than ever before. Always moving with the pattern of the beardUsually these are downward and outward movements. Use sponges instead of cotton pads on a mans face.Cotton will get caught in beard hair. Avoid using perfumed products on men. Make sure you have fragrance-free products or neutral-scented products.Consultation and Home CareConduct in well-lighted area with mirror.Educate client about at-home and salon procedures.Organize products for retail and explain each.48CONSULTATION AND HOME CAREHome care is the most important factor in a successful skin care program. Consult thoroughly regarding home care. Discuss treatment in a well-lit environment with mirror. Organize products for purchase and use.Use of Aromatherapy in the Basic FacialUse of essential oils that improves the efficacy of many skin care preparations.Enhances physical, emotional, and mental well-being.

Botamochy/Shutterstock.com49USE OF AROMATHERAPY IN THE BASIC FACIAL Aromatherapy is the therapeutic use of essential oils such as lemon, verbena, rosemary, and rose. They can enhance a persons physical, emotional, mental, and spiritual well-being.In this chapter, you learned about skin types, skin conditions, contraindications to a facial, facial procedure, and various modalities.Summary and ReviewSUMMARY AND REVIEWIn this chapter, you learned about skin types, skin conditions, contraindications to a facial, facial procedure, and various modalities.50Explain skin analysis techniques. Why is the skin analysis important?What is a contraindication? List five examples.Why is it important to have every client complete a client intake form?Describe the differences between alipidic and oily skin.Chapter Review Questions(continues)51CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS1. Explain skin analysis techniques. Why is the skin analysis important?Answer: Using a magnifying lamp, look over the skin detecting pore size, hyperpigmentation, acne lesions, and other abnormalities of the skin. After determining the skin type and any skin issues, choose the correct treatment for the client. Choosing the right treatment will benefit the client and their skin.

2. What is a contraindication? List five examples.Answer: A contraindication would be a pre-existing condition or state which would disallow a service from being performed. Five examples include: Use of Accutane, Retin-A, pregnancy, heart conditions, or diabetes.

3. Why is it important to have every client complete a client intake form?Answer: Clients will need to fill out the consultation form so the practitioner can refer back to the form should they ever have a question about health history or possible allergen.

4. Describe the differences between alipidic and oily skin.Answer: Alipidic skin is dry and lacks oil and oily skin has an excessive amount of sebum that is produced.What is the difference between skin type and skin condition?Name and explain the different categories of skin care products.What are the steps to completing a client consultation?Why is massage used during a facial?Chapter Review Questions (continued)(continues)CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (continued)5. What is the difference between skin type and skin condition?Answer: Skin type is the overall way that the skin is behaving. Conditions of the skin can usually be treated.

6. Name and explain the different categories of skin care products.Answer: Cleansing milks are cleansers specifically for dry skin types. Foaming cleansers are cleansers that are best for oily skin. Toners will rebalance the pH of the skin and aid in the cleansing process. Exfoliants will remove dead skin cells. Moisturizers will replenish the moisture in the skin. Sunscreens will protect the skin from sun damage. Serums are concentrated solutions to benefit the skin. Massage creams will add slip while performing a massage. Masks are concentrated treatments used during a facial.

7. What are the steps to completing a client consultation?Answer: Have the client fill out an intake form including the medical history portion and then perform a skin analysis using a magnifying lamp.

8. Why is massage used during a facial?Answer: Massage is used to relax a client but also increase metabolism and circulation, help promote absorption, and to relieve pain.52Name and briefly describe the five categories of massage manipulations.Name and describe two types of electrical machines used in facial treatments and why these machines add value to a facial.Who is not a good candidate for electrical current treatment? Why? How can aromatherapy be used in the basic facial?Chapter Review Questions (continued)CHAPTER REVIEW QUESTIONS (continued)9. Name and briefly describe the five categories of massage manipulations.Answer: Effleurage is a light, stroking movement that is used in massage. Ptrissage is a kneading movement that includes fulling. Friction is a deep rubbing movement and various types include chucking, rolling, and wringing. Tapotement is a percussion movement that involves tapping, slapping, or hacking. Vibration is a rapid shaking of the body part while the fingertips are pressed firmly against it.

10. Name and describe two types of electrical machines used in facial treatments and why these machines add value to a facial.Answer: A high frequency will help kill bacteria on the clients skin and the galvanic machine will help loosen up the sebum impactions to make extractions easier.

11. Who is not a good candidate for electrical current treatment? Why? Answer: Clients that have any metal implants or have a pacemaker should not have any type of application of electrical current because it could cause health/medical issues.

12. How can aromatherapy be used in the basic facial?Answer: Aromatherapy can benefit the clients mood just by relaxing them. It could be placed in a diffuser in the room or sprayed on the linens.53

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