Ethos, Pathos, and Logos. Aristotle (384 BC – 322 BC) Greek philosopher Taught by Plato who was taught by Socrates Teacher of Alexander the Great first.

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  • Ethos, Pathos, and Logos
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  • Aristotle (384 BC 322 BC) Greek philosopher Taught by Plato who was taught by Socrates Teacher of Alexander the Great first to create a comprehensive system of Western philosophy, morality and aesthetics, logic and science, politics and metaphysics.
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  • Aristotles Syllogism All men are mortal. Socrates is a man. Therefore, Socrates is mortal. Premise Conclusion
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  • Not All Logic is Sound! Premise 1: Most teachers are super cool. Premise 2: Scapellato is the teacher. Conclusion: Scapellato is super-cool.
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  • Deductive Reasoning Top-down logic If all premises are true, then conclusion is true Does not present new information, just rearranges existing information into a conclusion. applying a general rule (major premise) in specific situations (minor premise) from which conclusions can be drawn
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  • Deductive, cont. Premise: The bird is white Premise: Swans are white Concl.: A swan is a bird. Notice, no new information provided, just rearranged. Also, note there is a slight problem with the second premise.
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  • Inductive Reasoning Bottom-up logic States conclusions as probabilities or certainties that are unsubstantiated. Start with a conclusion and back into a premise: Swans are white. Joe said he saw a swan. It must have been white. Note: the conclusion CAN be wrong, even if the premises are true. Also, inductive arguments are either weak or strong (rather than valid or invalid).
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  • Inductive cont. Consider this example: The jar contains all blue M&Ms. Sam has a blue M&M in his hand. Sam must have taken it from the jar.
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  • Deductive v. Inductive My dresser contains white socks and black socks. I take one white sock and one black sock. The next sock will make a pair. Inductive or deductive?
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  • Inductive v. Deductive cont. My dresser contains only black socks and white socks. I have one black sock and one white sock. The next sock I pull from the drawer will be either black or white. Inductive or deductive?
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  • Inductive v. Deductive cont. This morning, I left at 6:15 a.m. for work. I was on time to work. Every morning I leave at 6:15, I will be on time for work. This morning, I left at 6:15 a.m. for work. The drive was 45 minutes, and I was on time. Tomorrow, if I leave at 6:15, I will be on time to work.
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  • Inductive v. Deductive cont. All odd numbers are integers. All even numbers are integers. Therefore, all odd numbers are even numbers. Note: a bad (invalid) deductive argument does not create an inductive one.
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  • Venn Diagrams Example 2. All hamburgers are meals Some cows are hamburgers Possible answers: All meals are cows At least some meals are cows No cows are meals Some cows are no meal
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  • Faulty Logic Bubonic Plague swept through Europe and parts of Asia in the 14th century, Killed almost of the population in less than 20 years At one point, people thought that the plague was spread by cats. Solution is to eliminate the cats However, we now know that the plague is spread by fleas which live on rats. Because cats kill rats, killing off the cat population led to an increase in the rat population More plague-carrying fleas More plague Killing off the cats was a logical solution to the problem of plague, but it was based on a faulty assumption.
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  • Logical Fallacies Error in reasoning Plato Aristotle
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  • Logos Greek for 'word' Logical appeal refers to the internal consistency of the message clarity of the claim logic of its reasons effectiveness of its supporting evidence
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  • To Develop Logos Theoretical, abstract language Denotative meanings/reasons Literal and historical analogies Definitions Factual data and statistics Quotations Citations from experts and authorities Informed opinions Result: Evokes a cognitive, rationale response
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  • Ethos Greek for 'character' 'ethical appeal' or the 'appeal from credibility.' refers to the trustworthiness or credibility conveyed through tone and style of the message affected by the writer's reputation as it exists independently from the message expertise in the field, previous record Integrity
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  • Ethos cont. from Warren Moise, Credibility and Character Evidence, Book 1, U of SC Press, 2013, p. 10 Ethos comprised of three parts (Aristotle): Good sense Good character Good will Modern view: ethos comprised of two parts: Credibility (expertise, competence) Trustworthiness (character, safety)
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  • To Develop Ethos Language appropriate to audience and subject Restrained, sincere, fair minded presentation Appropriate level of vocabulary Correct grammar Result: Demonstrates author's reliability, competence, and respect for the audience's ideas and values.
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  • Pathos Pathos (Greek for 'suffering' or 'experience') The emotional appeal. Audience to respond emotionally Identify with the speakers point of view. Through narrative and story Goal is to move to action or persuade to speakers point of view.
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  • To Develop Pathos Vivid, concrete language Emotionally loaded language Connotative meanings Emotional examples Vivid descriptions Narratives of emotional events Emotive tone Figurative language Result: Evokes an emotional response.
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  • What Kind of Appeal? Let us begin with a simple proposition: What democracy requires is public debate, not information. Of course it needs information too, but the kind of information it needs can be generated only by vigorous popular debate. We do not know what we need to know until we ask the right questions, and we can identify the right questions only by subjecting our ideas about the world to the test of public controversy. Information, usually seen as the precondition of debate, is better understood as its by-product. When we get into arguments that focus and fully engage our attention, we become avid seekers of relevant information. Otherwise, we take in information passively-- if we take it in at all. Christopher Lasch, "The Lost Art of Political Argument"
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  • What Kind of Appeal? My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities "unwise and untimely."...Since I feel that you are men of genuine good will and that your criticisms are sincerely set forth, I want to try to answer your statement in what I hope will be patient and reasonable in terms. I think I should indicate why I am here in Birmingham, since you have been influenced by the view which argues against "outsiders coming in."...I, along with several members of my staff, am here because I was invited here. I am here because I have organizational ties here. But more basically, I am in Birmingham because injustice is here. Just as the prophets of the eighth century B.C. left their villages and carried their "thus saith the Lord" far beyond the boundaries of their home towns, and just as the Apostle Paul left his village of Tarsus and carried the gospel of Jesus Christ to the far corners of the Greco-Roman world, so am I compelled to carry the gospel of freedom beyond my own home town. Like Paul, I must constantly respond to the Macedonian call for aid. Martin Luther King, Jr. "Letter from Birmingham Jail"
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  • What Kind of Appeal? For me, commentary on war zones at home and abroad begins and ends with personal reflections. A few years ago, while watching the news in Chicago, a local news story made a personal connection with me. The report concerned a teenager who had been shot because he had angered a group of his male peers. This act of violence caused me to recapture a memory from my own adolescence because of an instructive parallel in my own life with this boy who had been shot. When I was a teenager some thirty- five years ago in the New York metropolitan area, I wrote a regular column for my high school newspaper. One week, I wrote a colunm in which I made fun of the fraternities in my high school. As a result, I elicited the anger of some of the most aggressive teenagers in my high school. A couple of nights later, a car pulled up in front of my house, and the angry teenagers in the car dumped garbage on the lawn of my house as an act of revenge and intimidation. James Garbarino "Children in a Violent World: A Metaphysical Perspective"
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  • Information taken from: athos.html athos.html


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