Ethnicity and Genocide in Rwanda. 1994 Rwandan Genocide The culmination of 4 years of civil war, waged along ethnic lines. Beginning on April 7, more

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Ethnicity and Genocide in Rwanda </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> 1994 Rwandan Genocide The culmination of 4 years of civil war, waged along ethnic lines. Beginning on April 7, more than 1 million men, women, and children lost their lives in a period of 100 days </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Pre-colonial ethnic divisions? Arrival of the Tutsi and Hutu in Rwanda Are the divisions between Hutu and Tutsi ethnic or socio-economic Share language, religion, and cohabitate Division was occupationally defined: based on size of cattle herds. Tutsi feudalism- cattle- work exchange Some physical differences: height, skin color, skull shape </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Precolonial political system Precolonial political system is not well understood. Rwanda was a kingdom ruled by Tutsi king and predominantly Tutsi court. Was this a centralized and inegalitarian system or more theoretical? </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Colonial Rwanda: Fixing ethnic difference Indirect rule Ethnic identification cards Empowered Tutsi to rule Hutu majority Given weapons and support for rule Incorporation of North-West Rwanda into Tutsi rule Official discourse that viewed Tutsi as more intelligent, reliable and hardworking Administration and army jobs reserved for Tutsi </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Imagined Communities Benedict Anderson: Imagined communities. Though precolonial divisions were probably quite fluid, the colonial experience in Rwanda helped to solidify and radicalize ethnic differences between Hutu and Tutsi. Ethnic differences became a powerful way of organizing social relations, politics, and individual sentiment Racism justifies not so much foreign wars as domestic repression and domination </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Ethnic hierarchy created under colonial rule Bazungu to Tutsi to Hutu to Twa: Persons at each level having privileges denied to those at lower levels and distaining those below them. Served as a mechanism to divide and rule Rwanda </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Decolonization and the social revolution Decolonization by European colonizers and rise of Hutu elites against Tutsi oligarchy. Ideology of the social revolution: Rwanda belongs to the Hutu, its original inhabitants, who had been brutally subjugated for centuries by the foreign masters, the Tutsi. In 1959, the Hutu wrestled power away from their masters and installed a true democracy. Ethnic interpretation of history Discourse of democracy had a powerful legitimizing affect on international community </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Break Time!!! Be back in 5 minutes </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Social Revolution: Systematic discrimination Quota system to limit Tutsi access to higher education and state jobs. Continuation of ethnic ID cards. Army, diplomatic service and parliamentary positions reserved for Hutu </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Post-Independence Development With a few exceptions the majority of Rwandan people, both Hutu and Tutsi, did not see an improvement in their well being following independence. Levels of poverty across ethnic boundaries remained extremely high. Failure of Post-independence government to improve peoples livelihoods was a source of dissatisfaction and social unrest. </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Threats to Regime in 1990s FPR (Rwandese Patriotic Front) invasion. Comprised predominantly of Tutsi refugees pushed into Uganda following post-independence ethnic conflict. Frustration among Hutu in south with lack of power within regime International pressure to democratize, power share with FPR. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Racism as a political instrument In order to deflect internal and external threats to power, Rwandan regime initiated program of vilification of Tutsi Mobs organized by government officials to attack Tutsi Political rallies and media vilified Tutsi Tutsi described as an enemy within This diverted peoples attention from their own subjugation and impoverishment by the government and toward an external threat. </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Ethnic Genocide Beginning in the early 1990s the Rwandan government successfully spread ethnic fear throughout society, organized and legitimized the forces of violence and genocide, and desensitized people to violence. Phases of mass violence Authorization, routinization, dehumanization </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Conclusion Racism and ethnic prejudice are social constructs that are mobilized by those in power to serve as political tools of control and repression. Fomenting a belief in ethnic and racial differences can help to divert peoples attention away from the causes of their own impoverishment. Redirect people away from class divisions (material differences in wealth and power) and toward immaterial racial and ethnic differences. The genocide in Rwanda, though an ethnically based conflict, was the result of political efforts to maintain power and control. </li> </ul>