ed 260-educational psychology

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ED 260-Educational Psychology. Ashley Swanson. Todays Topics. Module 9-Behavioral Learning Theories Module 10-Social Cognitive Theory Module 11-Information Processing. Module 9 -Behavioral Learning Theory. Classical Conditioning. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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ED 260-Educational Psychology

ED 260-Educational PsychologyAshley SwansonTodays TopicsModule 9-Behavioral Learning TheoriesModule 10-Social Cognitive TheoryModule 11-Information Processing

Module 9-Behavioral Learning TheoryClassical ConditioningPairing involuntary behaviors with behaviors that do not evoke automatic responsesLearning occurs when the neutral stimulus is paired repeatedly with an unconditioned stimulusClassical Conditioning When an unconditioned stimulus and its conditioned response are paired with a previously neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (learned stimulus) that evokes a conditioned response (learned response)Classical ConditioningThe learned response can be expanded on, altered, or eliminated through:GeneralizationDiscriminationExtinctionClassical ConditioningMain classroom application:Emotional states regarding academic subjects, teachers, and schoolExample:positive teacher = positive feeling towards academic subject negative teacher = negative feeling towards academic subject Operant ConditioningPairing of events that includes new, voluntary behaviors rather than physiological responses or emotional statesLaw of effect- behaviors with good consequences are more likely to occur again, while behaviors with bad consequences are less likely to occur againOperant ConditioningSkinners ABCs of Learning:A-antecedent occurs prior to the behaviorCues and PromptsB-behaviorC-consequencesReinforcement and PunishmentOperant ConditioningReinforcement = increase in behaviors

Punishment = decreasing behaviorsOperant Conditioning+(Adding something)-(Taking something away)Positive reinforcementNegative reinforcementPositive punishmentNegative punishmentOperant ConditioningPositive Reinforcement: adding something that is desiredNegative Reinforcement: taking away something that is undesiredPositive Punishment: adding something undesiredNegative Punishment: removing something desiredOperant Conditioning Using Consequences Effectively:Developmental level of studentStudents likes and dislikesFunction of attentionWhen and how often to provide consequencesUse reinforcement more than punishmentSome punishments should not be usedClassroom ApplicationIncreasing appropriate behaviors:Premack principleShaping Reinforcing incompatible behaviorsPraise-and-ignorePositive PracticeClassroom ApplicationDecreasing inappropriate behaviors:SatiationExtinctionOvercorrectionReprimandResponse costSocial IsolationLogical Consequences in the ClassroomExcerpt from: Teacher Like Your Hairs on Fire by: Rafe Esquith

Emotional IntelligenceEmotional Intelligence (EI) can be used to reinforce appropriate behavior and discourage inappropriate behaviors while teaching students to be intrinsically motivated instead of extrinsically motivated Emotional IntelligenceConscious Discipline Video Clips:Noticing: http://consciousdiscipline.com/videos/Using Logical Consequences: http://consciousdiscipline.com/videos/ One goal of Conscious Discipline is to shift from a competitive, behavioral catch them being good model of classroom management to a cultural relationship model in which teachers create a respectful, responsible school climate where all members thrive and want to do good all the time.(Hoffman, L.L., Hutchinson, C.J., Reiss, E, 6)

Emotional IntelligenceUse of rewards: Ruptures relationships Ignores underlying reasons for behavior Discourages risk-taking Undermines interest in the task at handWhen we get rid of the rewards, we can adopt a classroom approach that dismisses petty reward structures and promotes a behavior process that thrives on emotional intelligence(Kohn)

Read Articles & Group DiscussionModule 10-Social Cognitive TheorySocial Cognitive TheoryAlbert BanduraAssumptions of theory:Learning can occur by observing othersLearning may or may not include a behavior changePersonal characteristics are important in learningObservational LearningModel Characteristics:RelevanceCompetenceHigh StatusGender appropriatenessObservational LearningImitator Characteristics:AttentionRetentionProductionMotivationObservational LearningEnvironmental Characteristics:Response facilitation effectResponse inhibition effectResponse disinhibition effectTriadic Reciprocal ModelThe influence of these three aspects on one another is bidirectionalPersonEnvironmentBehaviorAnxietyGoalsGenderSelf-efficacyStudy habitsAthletic performance Test scoresSelf-regulationTeachers instructional strategiesModelsSESPersonal Factors in LearningSelf-efficacy: individuals belief about his/her capabilities for successInfluences on Self-efficacy:Past performanceModelingVerbal persuasionPhysiological state

Personal Factors in LearningSelf-regulation: ability to control ones emotions, and behaviors by providing consequences for oneself

Self-ObservationSelf-EvaluationSelf-JudgmentClassroom ApplicationProvide students with accurate, specific feedbackEx) You read all the words on that page correctly, instead of saying good jobTeacher efficacy & Collective efficacyModeling and guided practice of learning strategies and specifically training students in goal setting and self-reflection promotes self-regulation

Module 11-Information ProcessingThree Stage Model of Information Processing Sensory MemoryWorking MemoryLong-Term MemorySensory Memory Component of memory that holds unanalyzed, incoming information for a brief period of timeUnlimited storage Visual information: 1 secondAuditory information: 2-3 secondsSensory MemoryAllows us to pay attention to some things and ignore others Size, intensity, novelty, incongruity, emotion, and personal significance determine the amount of attention particular stimuli deserve

Sensory Memory Test your sensory memory:http://forensics.rice.edu/en/For-Educators/Online-Activities.htmlSensory Memory1) What color coffee mug was in the picture?-Blue-Red -Yellow -White2) What was the deadline?-Yesterday-Tomorrow-Today-Oct 19Sensory Memory3) What time was on the clock on the wall?-10:40-7:20 -5:38 -11:054) How many sticky notes were on the whiteboard?-3-6-7-8Sensory Memory5) Which of the following was not in the picture?-stapler -trashcan -printer -pen6) What was the name on the plaque on the desk?-Steve-Brian-David-JeffSensory Memory7) What color was the victims shirt?-white-blue-red-green8) How many plants were in the office?-1-2-3-4Sensory Memory9) Which of the following was on the floor?-coffee mug-cardboard box-backpack-plant10) Where was the book in the picture?-on the box-on the floor -on the desk-under the bodyWorking MemoryComponent of memory that holds and processes a limited amount of information 5-9 bits of data at a time5-20 seconds, unless it is actively used-then duration is indefinite

Working MemoryStores from sensory and retrieves from long-termWoodcock Johnson (WJ) Test of Achievement-working memory subsetWorking Memory Working memory test similar to one given in the WJ test: http://intelligencetest.com/stmemory/index.htm

Working MemoryEncoding is the process of modifying information to get it ready for long-term storage Effortful processing eventually becomes automatic processing

Information RetentionRehearsalMneumonicsChunkingHeirarchiesVisual Imagery

Long-Term MemoryComponent of memory that holds knowledge and skills for days, weeks, or yearsTypes of knowledge:Episodic knowledge Declarative knowledgeProcedural knowledgeConceptual knowledgeLong-Term MemoryHow are memories retrieved:Activation level-indicates current degree of availability of information in long-term memoryHigh state of activation=available for immediate useLow state of activation=idle in long-term memory

Retrieval cues-used to move information from a low state of activation to a high state of activationSensesContextLong-Term MemoryHow are memories retrieved:Recall and recognition place different demands on memoryRecall: ability to pull something from memoryRecognition: identifying previously learned knowledgeLong-Term MemoryThree main reasons memories are forgotten:Encoding failure: information never makes it to the long-term memoryStorage decayed: use it or lose itRetrieval failure: information is unavailableClassroom ApplicationHelping students pay attentionPlan for students attention spansUse attention signalsKeep students engagedRespect attentional limits

Classroom ApplicationHelping students effectively store and retrieve information:Teach students how to organize informationWait timeDevelop conceptual understandingBreak down tasks into manageable piecesTeaching students why/how the information in relevantOpportunities to practice basic skills until they become automaticPractice & Repetition

Main Sources:Bailey, Becky. (2013). Conscious Discipline for Educators. Retrieved from: http://consciousdiscipline.comBohlin, L., Durwin, C. C., & Reese-Weber, M. (2009). EdPsych: Modules. New York: McGraw-HillEsquith, Rafe. ( ). Teach Like Your Hairs on Fire. Hoffman, L.L., Hutchinson, C.J., Reiss, E. (2009). On improving school climate: Reducing reliance on rewards and punishment. International Journal of Whole Schooling, 5(1). Kohn, A. (1993). Punished by rewards: The trouble with gold stars, incentive plans, A's, praise, and other bribes. Boston: Houghton Mifflin.