early-late middle ages: power in england & france

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Early-Late Middle Ages: Power in England & France. 476-1500. Reforms of William’s Successors. Henry I ( 1100 to 1135) S et up treasury C ontributions to legal system Traveling judges W eakened feudal lords & their justice. Reforms of William’s Successors. Henry II (1154 to 1189) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Early-Late Middle Ages: Power in England & France476-1500Reforms of Williams SuccessorsHenry I (1100 to 1135)Set up treasuryContributions to legal systemTraveling judgesWeakened feudal lords & their justice

Henry I was one of William the Conquerors sons (1100 to 1135)He set up the exchequer to handle the kingdoms financesHe also made important contributions to Englands legal systemSent traveling judges throughout the country to try casesThis weakened the feudal lords and their justice system

2Reforms of Williams SuccessorsHenry II (1154 to 1189)Increased royal authorityVassals paid a fee= hire mercenaries12 member jury= Replaced feudal trialTried members of the clergy

Henry II also made decisions that increased royal authority (1154 to 1189)Instead of performing feudal military service to the king, his vassals could pay a feeThis money could be used to hire mercenaries, or soldiers from different placesThis made the army loyal to him because he was paying themTraveling judges continued to strengthen royal law throughout EnglandThe 12 member jury developed in the court systemThey decided civil and criminal trialsTrial by jury to determine guilt or innocence replaced the feudal trial by ordeal and combatHenry also tried to increase the authority of his royal courts by trying members of the clergy who had been tried already in church courts

3Henry IISons plotted against him & his marriage was roughCaused conflict w/ France

The last years of Henry II reign were troubledHis sons plotted against him and also his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine was stormyHis marriage brought England into conflict with FranceHenry II rule had strengthened the English monarchy at the feudal lords expense

4Thomas BecketArchbishop of Canterbury, would NOT allow his clergy to be triedKnights of Henry murdered BecketDenied knowledge, but paid penance Becket= saint

Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury, would NOT allow his clergy to be tried in royal courtsHenry and Becket once friends, became enemiesThe knights of Henry, who thought they were helping, murdered Becket in his cathedralHenry II denied any part in the murder but did penance to appease the churchBecket was named a saint

5King John & Magna CartaKing made nobles pay more taxes= wars in France1215, nobles joined against the kingForced him to accept the Magna Carta

Henry II son, King John, is known for his actions that led to a revolt among Englands noblesKing John demanded that the nobles pay more taxes to support his wars in FranceIn 1215 a powerful group of nobles joined together against the king and his demandsTheir threats forced King John to accept a document known as Magna Carta

6Magna CartaProtected liberties of noblesOutline rights of ordinary pplNo new/special taxes w/out the consentSupreme law

This protected the liberties of the noblesProvided limited outline of rights for Englands ordinary peopleCouldnt collect any new or special taxes without the consent of the great councilThe acceptance of the Magna Carta meant that the king had to obey the law just like his subjectsMagna Carta became the supreme law of the land

7Simon de MontfortRevolt of nobles against King Henry IIISimon led the revolt & built middle-class support1265, asked for reps from the middle-class

A widespread revolt of nobles against King Henry III in the 1260s rocked England and again threatened the monarchySimon de Montfort led the revolt and aimed to build middle-class support for the nobles causeWanted these groups to combine efforts against the kingIn 1265 Simon de Montfort asked for representatives from the middle class to meet with the nobles and clergy

8ParliamentMiddle-class meeting w/ clergy & nobles remained English ParliamentDivided into 2 parts= housesNobles & clergy= House of the LordsKnights & burgesses= House of the CommonsAdvised the king

The practice of having members of the middle class meet with the clergy and the nobles in the Great Council remainedThis representative body eventually became the English ParliamentOvertime the Parliament divided into two parts, called housesNobles and clergy made up the House of the LordsKnights and burgesses made up the House of the CommonsParliament mainly served to advise the king but also had the right to refuse taxes sought by the king

9Common LawEdward I (1272 to 1307) 1 of the greatest monarchsDivided the kings court into 3 branchesTreasury: kept track of financial accountsCommon Pleas: ordinary citizensKings Bench: concerned the king or govtBasis for future court verdicts; applied equally

Edward I ruled England from 1272 to 1307, he was one of Englands greatest monarchsHe divided the kings court into three branchesThe Court of the Exchequer: kept track of the kingdoms financial accountsThe Court of Common Pleas: heard cases between ordinary citizensThe Court of the Kings Bench: conducted trials that concerned the king or the governmentThe decisions made by the new royal courts were collected and used as the basis for future court verdictsThis collection of decisions became known as common law because it applied equally and in common to all English people

10Magna CartaAfterward:Growth of Parliament & beginnings of rep. govt Growth of common law, based on customs & judges decisions, written codes

Two other major developments took place in England in the years following Magna CartaThe first was the growth of Parliament and the beginnings of representative governmentThe second was the growth of common law, law based upon customs and judges decisions, rather than upon written codes

11Quick ReviewWhat contributions did William the Conqueror and his successors make to England?

Explain how the English Parliament was created and how it functioned.

What is common law?

Activity: Magna Carta & the U.S. ConstitutionWith a partnerCompare the Magna Carta and the U.S. ConstitutionComplete the sheet Activity: Magna Carta & U.S. ConstitutionWith your partnerWrite an outline of your own constitutionConsider: ideas from the Magna Carta and the U.S. ConstitutionWhat would you change?