late middle ages sol notes
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Late Middle Ages
Late Middle AgesNotesDuring the late medieval period, European monarchies consolidate their power and began forming nation states. Nation-states are countries were people have a common language and culture.1066Battle of Hastings between King Harold of England and Duke William the Conqueror of Normandy. William the Conqueror defeats the Anglo-Saxon army and now possesses lands in both France and England.England Land of the Angles (Anglo-Saxon)Domesday Book written record of census, land and propertythroughout England. Used to tax.
The Bayeux TapestryEngland11541189: Henry II rules England and owns more than one-half the land in France due to his marriage to Eleanor of Aquitaine.Sets up a unified code of Common Law that set a standard precedent for law.Eleanor created a more elaborate court life in England. 10 children: 2/8Richard I and John.
England11891199: Richard I (Richard the Lion-Hearted) defends English properties and takes part in the Kings Crusade (3rd Crusade).
England11991216: John (also known as John Softsword and John Lackland) takes the throne, but the barons rebel against this weak king. Barons force King John to sign the Magna Carta in 1215 at Runnymede.
Magna Carta-No taxation without representation-Right to a jury trial-Due process of law-Limited MonarchyEngland12161272: Henry III takes the throne for a long and unhappy reign marked by further land losses to France.12721307: Edward I ascends the throne and strengthens the administration and monarchy in England. He raises taxes from the burgesses (merchants) and creates the Model Parliament in 1295. Bicameral government: House of Commons and House of Lords Provides a check on royal power Increases the power of the nobility Laws passed in Parliament are applied to entire country
England13371453: Hundred Years War between England and France. This war is mostly fought in France over land (EoA land) and hereditary rights. Although England wins many battles early on, France ultimately wins the war, and Britain is pushed out of France (with the exception of Calais.)Ironically, Joan of Arc is portrayed heroically in a British World War I poster. She was captured and burned at the stake by England during the Hundred Years WarEngland
14551485: War of the RosesThis Civil War is fought between the Yorks (white rose) and the Lancasters (red rose) for accession to the throne. Richard III is defeated at Bosworth Field (considered the last Medieval King of England) and Henry Tudor (Henry VII) ascends the throne. Appoints many of his advisors from the middle class Uses local government Taxes land and tonnage (imported goods) to gain revenue Avoids war; business and trade prosper Creates the Court of the Star Chamber, a personal court that meets in secrecy, and gives the King ultimate power. Peace and stability characterize Henrys reign, although torture is used.England
9871180: Capetian Dynasty begins with Hugh Capet, a relatively weak king chosen by the French nobles. Gradually, the Capetian kings strengthen their power and increase their territory outward from Paris.11801226: Philip II (Augustus) further strengthens the monarchy through the use of bailiffs (royal officials who collect taxes).France12261270: Louis IX (also known as Saint Louis) ascends the throne as a pious, popular, and just leader. He creates the Parliament of Paris, which acts as a Supreme Court.A statue of Louis IX standsoutside the St Louis Art MuseumFrance
1300sPhilip IV (also known as the fair) creates the Estates General: First EstateClergy. Second EstateNobility. Third Estate Bourgeoisie Not as powerful as Parliament; kings can decide when the Estates General will meetFrance
13371453: The Hundred Years War is fought between England and France over land and hereditary rights. Although France is losing many battles, Joan of Arc rallies the French troops to stunning victories in the Battle of Orleans. She is later captured by the English and burned at the stake as a heretic. She is canonized as a saint in 1920, almost 500 years after her death.France
14291461: Charles VII ascends the throne due to Joan of Arcs military aid. First permanent French army Creates a Royal Council Taxes land (taille) and salt (gabelle) to ensure revenue14611483: Louis XI (also known as the spider king) ascends the throne. Uses trickery, bribery, and a spy network in European courts Expands France to include Burgundy Does not use the Estates GeneralFrance1063Start of the Reconquistathe reconquest of Spain from the Muslims1400sMuslims only hold Granada.1469Marriage of Isabella (of Castile) and Ferdinand (of Aragon) unifies two separate kingdoms of Spain.1478 Spanish Inquisition.Spain
1492Granada falls to the Spanish; Spain becomes a unified country in religion. Inquisition courts are set up to subdue heretics.Spain
Jews and Muslims are expelled from Spain (2,000 killed); those who stay are forced to convert. Many Jews go to the near Middle East. This hurts Spain economically, because the Jews and Muslims make up a prosperous merchant class. Exploration begins with Columbus discovering the New World. Spain begins an ambitious exploration and colonization program.-Charles V and his son Philip II expand the Spanish empire into the Western Hemisphere.Spain
700sRussia is composed of a mix of Slavic peoples. Kiev is the capital, and there are many Byzantine influences, including the Eastern Orthodox Church and Byzantine architecture (onion-shaped domes).1200sMongols invade Russia.
12401480: The Mongol Yoke Destroys Kiev Uses Russian princes to rule kingdoms Collects tribute from Russians Maintains loose control over RussiansRussia
13281341: Ivan I serves Mongols as a tax collector in Moscow and gradually enlarges the Kingdom of Moscow.14621505: Ivan III (also known as The Great) is considered the first czar/tsar (marries the niece of the last Byzantine Emperor) and frees Russia from the Mongol Yoke in 1480.Russia
15471584: Ivan IV (a.k.a .The Terrible) struggles for power among Russias nobility (the boyars). Marries into the Romanov family Codifies laws Uses secret police force called the oprichniki Kills thousands of boyars and even his eldest son
Ivan the Terrible following the murder of his sonThe Crusades were a series of wars fought between the Christians and the Muslims over the city of Jerusalem, called the Holy Land. First Crusade Began in 1095, when Pope Urban makes a speech calling for a crusade to recapture Jerusalem from the Muslims. The Christians won and established crusader-states throughout the Arabian Peninsula. Second Crusade Muslim crusaders led by Saladin launch a counter attack and capture the crusader state of Edessa.
Third Crusade Saladin captures Jerusalem. Philip II of France, Frederick I of Germany, and Richard I of England send troops to recapture Jerusalem. In 1192 Saladin and Richard reach a truce, under which Jerusalem remained under Muslim control, but Christians were allowed to visit the citys holy places. The European crusaders also maintained control of the crusader-states along the Palestinian coast. Fourth Crusade In 1204, Pope Innocent III who used excommunication and interdiction to control Europe initiated the 4th Crusade. The European Crusaders made one last attempt to conquer Jerusalem, but failed. Instead they captured and looted the city of Constantinople, the Christian capital of the Byzantine Empire. Effects of the Crusades Weakened the Pope and nobles strengthened monarchs/kings Stimulated trade throughout the Mediterranean area and the Middle East Left a legacy of bitterness among Christians, Jews, and Muslims Weakened the Byzantine Empire
Other European Conflicts In 1453 the Ottoman Turks conquer Constantinople, ending the Byzantine Empire Ottoman Turks establish the Ottoman Empire with Istanbul as their capital The Hagia Sophia is converted from a Christian Church to a Muslim mosque Mongol armies invade Russia, Southwest Asia, and China, creating an empire and destroying cities and countryside Black Death In the fourteenth century (1300s), the Bubonic Plague (Black Death) decimated the population of much of Asia and then the population of Europe. It was caused by a bacteria in infected fleas carried by rats. It began in Asia and spread to Europe via trade routes. The plague spread quickly due to unsanitary conditions.
How did the Plague Impact Europe?
Decline in population Scarcity of labor which helped to end Feudalism Disruption of trade Decline of church influence
Increased trade and awareness of the Middle East occurred after the Crusades. Muslim and Byzantine scholars preserved Greek, Roman, and Arabic texts, including writings on philosophy, medicine, science, government, and law. Working in monasteries, church scholars translated documents from Greek and Arabic into Latin, thereby further preserving and transferring Greek, Roman, and Arabic culture to Western Europe. Laid the foundations for the rise of universities in Europe and ensured that Renaissance