western civ. late middle ages

Download Western Civ.  Late Middle Ages

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  • 1. The Late Middle Ages A Period of Crisis

2. The late Middle Ages experienced a series of crises that laid the foundation for the beginning of a renaissance across Europe. 3. Four major areas of crisis Food crisis- decline in agricultural production in some parts of Europe poor harvests/ famine Crisis in the Roman Catholic Church- The Church struggled to maintain its power and authority in Europe Health crisis - the spread of the bubonic plagueThe Babylonian Captivity Black DeathPolitical crisis - England and France fought over territory and political dominance on the continent The Hundred Years War 4. Agricultural Crisis Periods of severe weather Crop damage and poor harvests Famine in some areas of Europe Disease and epidemics poor nutrition Depopulation in some regions Unstable trade and economic development 5. The Black Death Arrived in Italy in 1347 Quickly spread across Europe (followed the traditional trade routes)Disease was transmitted by fleas (living on rats) Over 1/3 of Europes population died Many believed that the disease was caused by bad air Some thought it was the wrath of God Others blamed the Jews 6. The Plague Doctor 7. Religious radicals- the flagellants sought to appease an angry God through self sacrifice physical acts of penance 8. Macabre art reflected a profound pessimism and preoccupation with death 9. Impact of the Black Death Labor shortages fewer workers Decline in production inflation- rise in prices New job opportunities for those who survived Feudalism began to decline as new social and economic opportunities arose Growing Anti-Semitism many blamed the Jews Pessimism and fatalism (macabre art) 10. The Hundred Years War 1337-1453 Conflict between England and France Struggle over territory in France French confiscated the English holding of Aquitaine Dispute over who could lay claim to the French monarchy English king claimed to be the rightful king of France The English had several early victories Agincourt 11. Joan of Arc led the French forces to victory and was later captured and accused of being a witch by the English- executed England eventually lost the war and any claim to territory on the continent The war created tremendous debt and political turmoil in France and England Growth of nationalism 12. Joan of Arc 13. The Decline in the Power and Prestige of the Roman Catholic Church and Papacy The Babylonian Captivity (1309-1376) Papacy was moved to Avignon, France Came under the control of the French monarchy Papacy was restored to Rome in 1377 by the reforming Pope Urban VI 14. The papal court at Avignon, France 15. Pope Urban VI returned the papacy to Rome. 16. The Great Schism 1378-1417 Conflicts in the Church continued Disunity and divisions caused many to question Church authority Who was the rightful pope?The division served to highlight the growing decline in the power and prestige of the Church 17. Early Church Reformers John Wycliffe, in England, challenged the scriptural foundations of the popes temporal power Wycliffe also argued that everyone should read the Bible for himself/herself Vernacular translations of the Bible emerged First English translation of the scriptures 18. John Wycliffe 1330-1384- Early English reformer 19. Wyclif- first English translation of Scripture 20. John Hus Bohemian (Czech) political and religious reformer martyred in Prague. 21. The impact of the crises of the Late Middle Ages and the rise of the Renaissance New economic and social opportunitiesEconomic growth decline of feudalismexpansion of trade and business- bankingGrowth of the middle class Growing interest in expanding knowledge and learning Greater willingness to challenge and question the power and authority of the Church Anti-Semitism continued