dyslexia basics

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Dyslexia Basics. What is dyslexia? Who has it? What can be done about it?. What Characteristics Accompany Dyslexia?. Myth ? Fact ?. OR. Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed until about third grade. Children who reverse b’s and d’s are dyslexic. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


  • What is dyslexia?Who has it?What can be done about it?

    Dyslexia Basics

  • What CharacteristicsAccompany Dyslexia?

  • Myth ? Fact ?Dyslexia cannot be diagnosed until about third grade.Children who reverse bs and ds are dyslexic.Students cannot be dyslexic and Gifted/Talented.More boys than girls are dyslexic.A test is given to diagnose dyslexia.Dyslexia is outgrown.

  • PreschoolMay have trouble rhymingMay have trouble pronouncing wordsMay be unable to recall the right wordMay be slow to add new vocabulary wordsMay have trouble learning numbers, days of the week, colors, shapes, and how to spell and write his/her name

  • Kindergarten through 3rd gradeFails to understand that words come apartHas difficulty learning the letter names and their corresponding soundsHas difficulty reading single words in isolationHas difficulty spelling phoneticallyReads choppily and slowlyRelies on context to recognize a word

  • 4th grade through high schoolHas a history of reading and spelling difficultiesAvoids reading aloudReads most materials slowly and oral reading is not fluentAvoids reading for pleasureMay have an inadequate vocabularyHas difficulty spelling

  • Who has Dyslexia?

  • What Causes Dyslexia?

  • A specific learning disability that is neurological in origin

  • This language-based disorder affects:reading words accurately and/or fluentlyspellingdecoding nonsense words

  • Can affect reading comprehension

    Can lead to reduced reading experience that slows vocabulary growth

  • Trouble turning print into sound (phonological processing) is the root cause of dyslexia

    Unexpected reading difficulties in relation to cognitive abilities

  • What Does the Law Say About Dyslexia?

  • Helpful Tips for Teachers

  • All children can learn to read!


  • Dedra Carter, Region 15 Dyslexia Consultant325-481-4036Dedra.carter@netxv.net

    Virginia Gonzalez, State Dyslexia Consultant1-800-232-3030, Ext. 1410Virginia.gonzalez@region10.org

    Welcome the audience.

    Explain that dyslexia has become a heavily researched field in the past 20 years and that you are going to share some general information about dyslexia.

    At the end of the presentation you will have a question-and-answer time. If you dont know the answer to a particular question you can research it by contacting Dedra Carter at Region 15 ESC and then getting back to the parent with the information, or by asking the parent to contact Dedra Carter. (Contact information is on the last slide of the presentation.)**Tell the audience that these are common concepts the general public has about dyslexia.

    Ask them to read these and in their minds judge whether they are true or false, myth or fact.

    Answers are on the next three slides. (All of these are myths.)*Diagnosis: Dyslexia can be diagnosed before third grade. The earlier a diagnosis is made, the better because intervention can begin sooner. The states Dyslexia Handbook states that the appropriate time for assessing is early in a students school career, the earlier the better. However, a student can be identified as being dyslexic at any time, Kindergarten through Grade 12.

    Dyslexic children are generally in the third grade or above when they are first identified by their schools; reading disabilities diagnosed after third grade are much more difficult to remediate. Early identification is important because the brain is much more plastic in younger children and potentially more malleable for the rerouting of neural circuits. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 30.

    Reversals: One of the most enduring misconceptions is that dyslexic children see letters and words backward and that reversals (writing letters and words backward) are an invariable sign. While it is true that dyslexic children have difficulties attaching the appropriate labels or names to letters and words, there is no evidence that they actually see letters and words backward. A related misconception is that mirror writing invariably accompanies dyslexia. In fact, backward writing and reversal of letters and words are common in the early stages of writing development among dyslexic and nondyslexic children. Because these beliefs about dyslexia are so prevalent, many dyslexic children who do not make reversals are often undiagnosed. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 100.

    G/T: A student can have the learning disability of dyslexia and still be a Gifted/Talented child. Dyslexia is a specific weakness often surrounded by a sea of strengths: reasoning, problem solving, comprehension, concept formation, critical thinking, general knowledge, and vocabulary. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 57.

    Dyslexics appear to be disproportionately represented in the upper echelons of creativity and in the people who, whether in business, finance, medicine, writing, law, or science, have broken through a boundary and have made a real difference to society. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 57.

    *Gender: There is no significant difference in the prevalence of reading disability in boys and girls. However, boys are identified three to four times as often because of their classroom behavior (acting out frustrations).

    No single test: A battery of tests must be used, along with school records, to build a profile of a student before a dyslexia determination can be made. The states Dyslexia Handbook, p. 34, states that districts should use multiple data sources including formal and informal measures that are appropriate for determining whether a student has dyslexia or a related disorder. Reading assessments, as appropriate for the reading development of the student, should include the following:Reading real and nonsense words in isolation (decoding)Phonological awarenessLetter knowledgeRapid namingReading fluency (rate and accuracy)Reading comprehensionWritten spelling

    Outgrown: Because it is neurologically based, dyslexia cannot be outgrown. It is not a developmental lag in learning to read.

    We determined quite decisively that dyslexia is a chronic condition and that it does not represent a temporary lag in reading development. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 33.

    Dyslexia can, however, be compensated for and accommodated for, and the students can learn to read.*Inherited: Dyslexia runs in families; having a parent or a sibling who is dyslexic increases the probability that you are, too. Between one-quarter and one-half of the children born to a dyslexic parent will also be dyslexic. If one child in a family is dyslexic, almost half of his sisters and brothers are also likely to be dyslexic. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 98-99.

    Recent studies have shown that not only does dyslexia run in families but it is carried as a genetic trait. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 99.

    Degrees: As with any learning disability, it expresses itself in degrees, depending on its severity.

    Depending on the nature or severity of this fault in the (brain) wiring, we would expect to observe variations and varying degrees of reading difficulty. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 68.

    The states Dyslexia Handbook says, There will be students with severe dyslexia or related disorders who will be unable to make adequate academic progress within any of the programs described in the procedures related to dyslexia. In such cases, a referral to special education for evaluation and possible identification as a child with a disability should be made as needed. (p. 10)

    Frequency: Dyslexia is the most common reading difficulty.

    Dyslexia affects one out of every five children 10 million in America alone. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 6.

    *These are from the states Dyslexia Handbook Revised 2007. The states sources were the International Dyslexia Association and Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz.*These are from the states Dyslexia Handbook Revised 2007. The states sources were the International Dyslexia Association and Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz.

    *These are from the states Dyslexia Handbook Revised 2007. The states sources were the International Dyslexia Association and Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz.

    ****This is from the International Dyslexia Associations 2002 definition, which is in the newly revised state handbook.

    Scientists have done functional MRIs on readers, both dyslexic and nondyslexic, and have found a neural difficulty for dyslexics.

    As they read, good readers activate the back of the brain and also, to some extent, the front of the brain. In contrast, dyslexic readers show a fault in the system: underactivation of neural pathways in the back of the brain. Consequently, they have initial trouble analyzing words and transforming letters into sounds, and even as they mature, they remain slow and not fluent readers. Overcoming Dyslexia by Dr. Sally Shaywitz, p. 81.

    *These are the symptoms seen by teachers in the classroom.*The reading comprehension problem is a consequence of the dyslexia, not the cause of dyslexia.

    Students who have trouble reading usually avoid reading, which can lead to slower vocabulary growth.*Phonological processing: A reader must convert print into sound, and this is where dyslexics have trouble. Phonological processing means doing oral activities like rhyming and leaving out parts of words (like cowboy without the cow). Dyslexics have trouble doing activities like these and have trouble specifically working with individual sounds. And because reading is about changing print symbols into sounds, this dif