what is dyslexia? what causes dyslexia?
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What is Dyslexia?What causes Dyslexia?
What is Dyslexia?Dyslexia is a brain based type of learning disability that specifically impairs a persons ability to read. It is a specific learning disability that manifests primary as a difficulty with written language, particularly with reading and spelling. It is separate and distinct from reading difficulties resulting from other causes, such as deficiencies in intelligence, a non-neurological deficiency with vision or hearing, or from poor or inadequate reading instruction. Evidence suggests that dyslexia results from differences in how the brain processes written and/or verbal language. Even though it is the result of a neurological difference, it is not an intellectual disability. Dyslexia occurs at all levels of intelligence, average, above average, and highly gifted. The word dyslexia comes from the Greek words dys-(impaired) and lexis (word). Those with dyslexia are called dyslexic or dyslectic.
What is Dyslexia? (cont)Dyslexia is characterized by difficulties with learning how to decode at the word level, to spell, and to read accurately and fluently. Those who are dyslexics have difficulty breaking the code of sound-letter association (the alphabetic principle), and may reverse or transpose letters when writing or confuse letters such as b,d,p,q, especially in childhood. However, it is not a visual problem that involves reading letters or words backwards or upside down, nor are reversals a defining sign of dyslexia. Many with dyslexic symptoms in reading, writing, and spelling also exhibit symptoms in other domains such as poor short-term memory skills, poor personal organization skills, problems processing spoken language, left-right confusion, difficulties with numeric or math and issues with balance and co-ordination.
Dyslexia is a life long term condition for which there is no cure, but the appropriate remedial instruction and compensatory strategies can help the person overcome their difficulties with written language. Many have overcome early problems with literacy and made successful careers.
What Causes Dyslexia? It is important to say that Dyslexia is not brought about by poor parenting. Many parents have persistently pointed out to their childrens schools that something is wrong. At the moment there is no specific factor that explains what causes dyslexia. In the last years an increased amount of research has taken place but much still needs to be done. One of the beliefs is that it can be caused by inherited factors, and/or hearing problems at an early age.
Dyslexia can be frequently found in families and is often accompanied by left-handedness somewhere in the family. However, this does not mean that a dyslexic parent will have a dyslexic child, or a left-handed child is dyslexic. But there have been instances where children with learning difficulties in reading have had a family member who also had problems learning to read.
What Causes Dyslexia? (cont)Research done on the brains of dyslexic people have found out that there are lots of cells beneath the surface of the brain which lie on the surface in the brain of non-dyslexic people. These groups of cells should have moved to the brains surface when it was developing, but failed to make the journey. These ectopic cells are found mainly in the left and front of the brain- the areas which are important for reading and writing. Another area of the brain the magno-cellular system, which deals with our ability to see moving images- is smaller in the brains of dyslexic people. This makes reading more difficult, the brain has to quickly interpret the different letters and words which the eyes see as they scan words and sentences.
Non-dyslexic children use the left side of their brain for language work, whereas dyslexic children have to use the right side as well. This side is not wired for language work, and, as a result, the brains of dyslexic children and adults have to work six times harder. This is the reason why they become fatigued by language work and dealing with text.
What Causes Dyslexia?(cont)Another cause of Dyslexia can be that of a childs hearing problems at an early age. Children that suffer from frequent cold and throat infections in the first five years, can have an hearing impairment. If a child can not hear then they can not clearly hear the difference between words like pin and thin.
The lack of hearing can delay the childs phonemic awareness-the ability to hear that words are made up of smaller sounds and syllables, like c-a-t. A delay of phonemic awareness causes lifelong difficulties- dyslexia- if corrective action is not taken at a very early stage.
Sometimes genes are inherited which can involve both difficulty with printed words and experienced hearing problems. They can be quite severely dyslexic, and require lots of support throughout their school and college years, as well as in the work place.
Characteristics of DyslexicsIndividuals with Dyslexia can be identified as follows: May be bright, intelligent and articulate, but below level in reading, writing and spelling. Have the same intelligence range as people without Dyslexia. Poor academic achievement due to reading and writing problems. May have good oral language abilities but perform poorly on similar written language tests. May be labeled lazy, dumb, careless, immature, not trying hard enough or have a behavioral problem. May feel dumb ,have poor self esteem, and might be easily frustrated and emotional about school. May try to hide their reading weaknesses with ingenious compensatory strategies
Characteristics (cont)May have related problems with attention in the school setting; seem zone out or daydream often; get lost easily or lose track of time; and have difficulty keeping focus. May learn best through hands-on experience, demonstrations, experimentation, observation and visual aids. Shows talents in other areas such as art, drama, sports, mechanics, story-telling, building, engineering to name a few.
Strategies Can Make a DifferenceA multi-sensory approach which involves teaching spelling not only by hearing and saying the sounds of the letters, but also using their visual and tactile (touch) memories by writing the letters in the air, on the carpet, or writing on big sheets of paper. Joining the letters together- in joined handwriting-helps the brain remember the order of the letters in a word. Providing visual handouts with plenty of diagrams, mind maps and pictures on colored paper. Presenting information verbally, through a mind-map or as a drawing is very helpful. Organization in subject areas such as color coded files help dyslexics. Visual aids such as video and other forms of visual presentation.
StrategiesDiscussion or oral debate to bring understanding and the storage of visual graphics or symbols can help the dyslexic see and better comprehend information.
Models, graphics and simple diagrams are helpful tools for the dyslexic to unite concepts and go over academic materials.
Information For more information about this topic you can contact the following sources in Illinois: Chicago North Learning Disabilites Association at 773-583-8158 Illinois Branch of the International Dyslexia Association 751 Roosevelt Road,Suite 116,Glen Ellyn Il.60137 or call 630-469-6900 or email:firstname.lastname@example.org or on line www.interdys.org
DislexiaQu es la dislexia?La dislexia es un tipo de aprendizaje conectado al cerebro que especficamente impide la habilidad en la persona para aprender a leer. La inhabilidad especifica que primariamente se manifiesta en la dificultad con el lenguaje escrito, particularmente con la lectura y la ortografa. Se separa y se distingue de las dificultades en la lectura que resultan de otras causas, como son la deficiencias en la inteligencia, una deficiencia no- neurolgica con la visin, o de instruccin inadecuada en la lectura. Estudios sugieren que la dislexia resulta de diferencias en como procesa el cerebro el lenguaje escrito y oral. Aunque resulta de una diferencia neurolgica, no es una inhabilidad. La dislexia ocurre a todos niveles de inteligencia promedio, promedio alto y altamente talentoso. La palabra dislexia viene de palabras griegas dys-(impedido)y lexis (palabra). Aquellos con dislexia se conocen como dislxicos or
Qu es la dislexia?Dislexia se caracterstica por la dificultades en aprender como descifrar palabras, deletrear, y leer adecuadamente y con fluidez. Aquellos que son dislxicos tiene dificultad rompiendo el cdigo de la asociacin del sonido de letras y puede invertir o transponer letras cuando escriben o confunden letras como son b,d,p,q, especialmente durante la niez. Sin embargo, no es un problema visual que envuelve leer letras o palabras hacia atrs o hacia abajo, o el inverso una seal de dislexia. Aquellos que tienen sntomas en la lectura, escritura, y la ortografa tambin exhiben otros sntomas como son la destrezas con la memoria corta, una pobre organizacin personal, dificultades con el proceso del lenguaje oral, confusin como la derecha e izquierda, problemas con los nmeros y con el balance y la coordinacin. Dislexia es una condicin de vida que no tiene cura, pero la instruccin apropiada e estrategias compensatorias pueden ayudar a una persona a sobre llevar dificultades con el lenguaje escrito. Muchos a sobre llevado dificultades con la lectura y han prosperado.
Qu es la dislexia?Es importante sealizar que la dislexia no se manifiesta por pobre practica de parentesgo. Por el contrario, muchos padres saben cuando algo esta mal y le dejan saber al maestro. Por el momento no hay ningn factor especifico que explique que causa la dislexia.
En los pasados aos han habido estudios pero todava falta m