Post on 25-Feb-2016
Embed Size (px)
DESCRIPTIONCRISIS INTERVENTION. Christine S. CNSS 561. ASCA Position Statement. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
CRISIS INTERVENTIONChristine S.CNSS 561ASCA Position StatementThe professional school counselor is a leader in the successful development and implementation of a response plan with respect to the needs of both students and staff during any school- or student-related incident and serves primarily as an advocate for students safety and well-being. The professional school counselor is a pivotal member of a schools/school districts crisis/critical incident response team collaborating with other school staff members to implement a comprehensive response to any such incident. What is a crisis?An intolerable situation or sudden change in routine that disrupts the normal functioning of a person, group, or organization and requires immediate attention and resolution.Types of crises include: family deaths, natural disasters, war, factory closings, car accidents, school shootings, death of a faculty member, terrorism, bomb threat, suicide.Characteristics of a CrisisCrises affect entire school communities.Immediate physical and emotional needs of people must be identified and addressed. Conditions evoke strong emotions in an affected population such as fear, stress, and anger.Victims are preoccupied with the crisis situation and function in a state of disequilibria.The Role of theSchool CounselorKnowledgeable about the roles of first responders.Facilitate planning, coordinate response to and advocate for the emotional needs of all persons affected by the crisis/critical incident by providing direct counseling service during and after the incident.Facilitates a continuum of support for students, school staff and victims involved in the incident. Networks with community resources including first responders and is able to provide effective planning and referral for victims of a critical incident. Crisis Response PlanSchool districts must develop district and building-level crisis response plans to ensure the safety of students and staff during a crisis and mitigate its long-term effects.School counselors should be involved in the development and implementation of a crisis response plan.The final plan should be reviewed with faculty and staff.Crisis Response PlanFactors to consider:Emotional and Psychological StressSafetyMediaCommunicationAuthority
Emotional and Psychological StressDepends on several factors such as the seriousness of the crisis, the number of people directly involved, and peoples reaction to the event.Common responses to trauma: PTSD, anxiety, behavioral reenactment, emotional numbness, nightmares, grief, increased severity or reoccurrence of symptoms, denial, anger, truancy, school avoidance, academic failure.Common Trauma Responses
SafetyBasic needs of security, shelter, and safety from physical harm must be met.The steps to protect people and secure the school building will vary from crisis to crisis.MediaThe media want to keep people informed.School may rely on the media to seek assistance for students and teachers.Balance the publics right to know with an individuals right to privacy and protection.Crisis intervention plans should establish clear guidelines for disseminating information and granting access to school personnel.CommunicationHow information is distributed depends on the type of crisis, but general guidelines are necessary to control the flow of information and assure that all announcements are accurate.Inaccurate information or inadequate communication can exaggerate a crisis, hinder attempts to help, and fuel an already volatile situation.AuthorityWho is in charge?Consider parents rights and legal jurisdiction of the police department and other agencies.Need to coordinate decisions and recognize parameters of authority.Establish cooperative channels of communication and authority between schools and the community prior to a crisis (i.e. publicize your crisis intervention plan).Clearly define the first lines of authority.Establish a Crisis Response Team.
Crisis Response TeamLeadership is essential for adequate coordination of services.Composed of principal, school counselors, nurses, social workers, teachers, police officers, and community mental health professionals.Other members might include: office staff and community religious leaders.
Crisis Response TeamTeam Leader: leads meetings and oversees the functioning of the team.Assistant Team Leader: assists in these tasks and is responsible if the team leader is unavailable.Media Coordinator: establishes and initiates a telephone tree to notify team members and other school staff, provides basic information to the news media.In-house Communication Coordinator: screens incoming calls, maintains a phone log, assists the staff notification coordinator, and maintains a phone directory of regional and district-level teams and staff and community resources.Crowd Management Coordinator: collaborates with the school security personnel, local law enforcement, and emergency departments for supervising evacuation and crowd control procedures.Evaluator: conducts readiness checks, designs screening tools, and collects data on crisis team performance.Counselors: collaborates with teachers, staff, and community members to screen students at risk for significant emotional distress; link students and families to resources at school and the community; plan and implement post-crisis counseling strategies such as a Safe Room, classroom discussions, and individual counseling as needed. Crisis Response TeamA good team should consider three areas of crisis intervention.Management of the situation.Direct intervention strategies.Post-crisis procedures.Crisis ManagementSpecific procedures should be in place for different types of crises. These procedures are usually referred to as a Crisis Response Plan, which is included in a handbook.The first individual who observes the crisis should contact the principal.Principal notifies Crisis Team members and provides reporting location.Indicate the nature of the crisis using a color coded signal.Notify the appropriate authorities.Crisis ManagementAssemble Crisis Response Team and agree on a plan of action.Determine the facts.Assess risk to staff and students.Assume designated roles.One crisis team member supervises communication. An immediate message should be relayed to the superintendent and affected individuals (i.e. parents).Plan teacher meeting to provide accurate information about the crisis and tips for leading discussions with students.Manage the crisis headquarters.Crisis ManagementCoordinate with first responders, law enforcement, or mental health professionals.If appropriate, contact the news media. Release only prepared statements with verified information. Maintain phone record.Keep logs of incoming and outgoing calls.Arrange for appropriate facilities and refreshments if a prolonged crisis is experienced.Administrator prepares letter to send home to parents with information about what happened, emotional responses, how they can help, resources, and future plans.Direct Intervention StrategiesTriage: assess the immediate needs of those in crisis and determine what services to deliver and who will deliver them.Referral: screen students for inappropriate, unhealthy, or unsafe coping responses and make appropriate referrals.Counseling: classroom, group, and individual counseling as needed.Safe Rooms: designated areas in a school where students and staff can go post-crisis for counseling and links to additional support services in the school or community.Memorials: a service or display that conveys the condolences of the school and offers students and staff a forum to express emotions.
Post-Crisis ProceduresDebrief with Crisis Response Team.Return to a normal routine.Continue assistance for people in need of services.Determine the appropriateness of special events (i.e. memorial services, fund raisers, etc.).Examine causal and contributing factors.Plan preventive measures to avoid or deal with future crises of this nature.PreventionClassroom guidance:Help students identify indicators of stress and danger in themselves and others.Explore developmental concerns and help students develop coping skills.Identify students who need special attention.Individual and Group Counseling:Work on topics such as peer relationships, feelings, assertiveness, grief, and stress.Programs: Peer helpers, parent education, and safety education.In-service Training:Teach skills that help staff increase supervisory ability, manage behavior, listen and communicate, and identify crisis indicators.In-service TrainingTraining opportunities offered by the International Critical Incident Stress Foundation and the Crisis Management Institute.Distribute important phone numbers. Learn procedures for contacting rescue squads, fire departments, or other agencies.Agency representatives can present procedures for including these organizations in crisis interventions.A school board attorney can present information about legal and ethical issues, including local policies and how to handle privileged communication in a crisis. Crisis Counseling: Students in CrisisOnly provide services within the scope of your professional competence.Some questions to guide your decision:Does the situation require informing the crisis team?What steps do you take immediately?Do you have the training and knowledge to needed to effectively counsel in this case?If an outside agency takes the case, how can you provide additional support at school?If you decide to take a case, follow these steps:Assess the nature and severity of the crisis.Establish and implement a plan of action.Follow up and evaluate the outcome.AssessmentDetermine the degree of risk for the students welfare and safety.Decide who needs to be contacted.Include other professionals when possible.Use these assessments: interview the student, parent, teachers peers; observation; and screen using formal and informal measures.Some crises do not p