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Defining Comprehension Strategies and Instructional Strategies Jocelyn Caswell Walden University September 17, 2015

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  • Defining Compre

    hension

    Strategies and

    Instructional St

    rategies

    Jocelyn Caswel

    l

    Walden Univers

    ity

    September 17, 2

    015

  • Defining Metacognition: Thinking about Thinking

    Dr. Lisa Bald (2014i) describes metacognition as a process that includes regulating, checking and repairing.

    Metacognition includes an awareness of ones thinking, a knowledge of learning needs and regulation of cognitive strategies (Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas & Doyle, 2013).

    Pros of metacognition include increased reading comprehension, promotion of academic learning and control of reading (Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas& Doyle,2013).

  • Defining Comprehension

    When one understands what is read, they are comprehending text.

    Hollenback and Saternus (2013) describe this as meaning the reader constructs after interaction with a text.

  • Comprehension Strategies and Instructional Strategies

    Comprehension strategies are for students. These are used to help students monitor their comprehension as they move through a text.

    Instructional strategies are conditions created by a teacher to facilitate learning (Laureate Education, Inc., 2014g). This instruction teaches students about comprehensions strategies and how to employ in reading.

  • Comprehension Strategies

    Comprehension Monitoring

    Questioning

    Expert readers use a variety of comprehension strategies to construct meaning while

    reading (Hollenback and Saternus, 2013).

  • Comprehension Monitoring Using this strategy, students differentiate between what is understood

    and what is confusing.

    Students must know how to regulate, check for understanding and repair confusion.

    Essential to provide students with steps until this strategy is used with automaticity.

    Example: Read, stop, restate what is happening, find difficulty, repair.

    *The National Reading Panel (2000) explains how comprehension monitoring helps students become aware of comprehension struggles, thus improving comprehension.

  • Questioning Students mentally ask and answer questions about a text before, during and after reading.

    Students must be taught how to formulate questions and types of questions that can stem from text.

    Example: Teacher modeling and Think-Alouds.

    Students can work in collaborative groups to practice building textual questions.

    Graphic organizers can be used for students to ask and answer questions about text.

  • Instructional Strategies

    Modeling, Scaffolding, Guided Practice

    Example: I do, we do, you do.

    Collaborative Learning

  • Modeling, Scaffolding, Guided Practice Modeling provides students with an exemplar model

    of the specific task.

    Example: Think-Alouds to model regulation of text.

    Guided practice and scaffolding give students support in the new task using a gradual release of responsibility. Using these two practices, the teacher guides the student in the practice with varying support.

  • Collaborative Learning

    A learning condition in which students work together in building comprehension strategies.

    Example: Students work in a collaborative group to practice forming questions about a text.

  • Cognitive Aspects of Comprehension

    Includes awareness of text and ability to make meaning.

    Students are expected to use such skills and strategies with increasing rigor (Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas & Doyle, 2013).

    Examples of cognitive skills include phonics and comprehension.

    Common Core supports cognitive strategies.

  • Affective Aspects of Comprehension

    Moods, feelings and attitudesEpistemic beliefs, self-efficacy, motivation and engagement.

    Emotional aspects of learning such as beliefs about knowledge, or epistemic beliefs.

    Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas & Doyle describe self-efficacy as a students thoughts about performance abilities.

    Motivation and engagement includes a students effort and quality of participation within the learning environment (Afflerbach, Cho, Kim, Crassas & Doyle, 2013).

  • A Daily DEAR Program: Drop Everything, and Read!

    Independent, choice reading time that occurs in a classroom daily. Teachers use this time to work with students one on one, addressing deficient skills.

    Teachers and students work together to create realistic goals for student reading development and reflect on past learning/growth.

    Teachers model strategies and skills for students during the mini-lesson.

  • Author Study: Improving Reading Comprehension

    Using Inference and Comparison

    Students need to be aware of their own thinking in order to build an inference.

    Students use metacognition to regulate building background knowledge, finding textual evidence and making educated assumptions about an author.

    This is a higher order comprehension skill as multiple processes/strategies are used to develop inferences.

  • References Afflerbach, P., Cho, B.-Y., Kim, J.-Y., Crassas, M. E., & Doyle, B. (2013).

    Reading: What else matters besides strategies and skills? The Reading Teacher, 66(6), 440448.

    Hollenbeck, A. F., & Saternus, K. (2013). Mind the comprehension iceberg: Avoiding titanic mistakes with the CCSS. The Reading Teacher, 66(7), 558568.

    Laureate Education (Producer). (2014g). Conversations with Ray Reutzel: Supporting comprehension [Audio file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

    Laureate Education (Producer). (2014j). Metacognition: Thinking about thinking [Multimedia file]. Baltimore, MD: Author.

    National Institute of Child Health and Human Development. (2000). Report of the National Reading Panel. Teaching children to read: an evidence- based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Retrieved September, 17, 2015, from http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/smallbook.htm.