comparison of fuel cell based hybrid vehicles with other alternative systems

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  • Comparison of Fuel-Cell-Vehicles with Other Alternative Systems

    Dr. Johannes Tpler, Deutscher Wasserstoff- und Brennstoffzellenverband (DWV)

  • 05000

    10000

    15000

    20000

    25000

    1920 1960 2000 2040 2080

    Coal

    Nat.Gas

    Oil

    Nuclear Energy

    Wind

    PV

    SOT

    Biomass

    Mtoe [Millions of Tons of Oil Equivalent]

    Quelle: LBST Alternative World Energy Outlook 2005

    Jahr

    A possible Scenario of World Energy

    Solarthermal Electricity

    Geothermal Heat

    Geothermal Electricity

    PV Electricity

    Water Power

    Wind Power

    Solarthermal Heat

  • Future primary energy supply

  • Supply cannot satisfy demand

    Supply outreaches demand by far

    Vertical load curve and feed-in of wind power in E.ON grid

    Vertical load

    Wind power 2007

    Estimated wind power 2020

    Date

    Fluctuating renewable electricity

  • HydrogenElectricity

    or:

    Hydrogen as secondary energy carrier

  • Comparison of netto-storage capacities

    0

    2000

    4000

    6000

    8000

    0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20Zeit in d

    W

    i

    n

    d

    L

    e

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    s

    t

    u

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    i

    n

    M

    W

    AA CAES

    Pumpspeicher

    H2 (GuD)

    Bei einem Speichervolumen von V = 8 Mio. m

    8 Mio. m3 correspond to the biggest German natural gas caverne fieldFor comparison: Pump storage Goldisthal has a Volume of 12 Mio. m3

    Pump storage5 GWh

    AA CAES23 GWh

    H2 Gas /vapor turbineca. 1.300 GWh (1.3 TWh)

    Time (days)

    W

    i

    n

    d

    P

    o

    w

    e

    r

    i

    n

    M

    W

    Storage volume of V = 8 Mio. m3

    Source: KBB UT

  • Electric Drive

    System Module

    Fuel Cell Stack

    Power Distribution Unit (PDU)

    Hydrogen Storage

    Cooling System

    Daimler, FCell Packaging

    Battery

  • Fuel Cell vehicleMercedes-Benz B-Class

    Lithium-Ionbattery

    Electric motor

    Air module

    Hydrogen tank

    Hydrogen module

    Fuel Cell

    Hydrogen module

    Essential Facts

    1) Vehicle is constructed,fabricated and approvedunder serial condititions.

    2) It was tested by a turn of 125 days around the world with 30.000km

    3) Start of serial productionin 2017

  • B-Class F-Cell

    Next generation of the fuel cell-power train:

    Higher stack lifetime (>2000h)

    Increased power Higher reliability Freeze start ability Li-Ion Battery

    Size- 40%

    [

    l

    /

    1

    0

    0

    k

    m

    Consumption- 16%

    [

    k

    W

    ]

    Power+30%

    [

    k

    m

    ]

    Range+135%Technical Data

    Vehicle Type Mercedes-Benz A-Class (Long)

    Fuel Cell System PEM, 72 kW (97 hp)

    Engine

    Engine Output (Continuous / Peak):45 kW / 65 kW (87hp)Max. Torque: 210 Nm

    Fuel Hydrogen (35 MPa / 5,000 psi)Range 105 miles (170 km / NEDC)

    Top Speed 88 mph (140 km/h)

    BatteryNiMh, Output (Continuous / Peak): 15 kW / 20 kW (27hp); Capacity: 6 Ah, 1.2 kWh

    Technical DataVehicle Type Mercedes-Benz B-Class

    Fuel Cell System PEM, 90 kW (122 hp)

    Engine

    IPT Engine Output (Continuous/ Peak) 70kW / 100kW (136hp)Max. Torque: 290 Nm

    Fuel Compressed Hydrogen (70 MPa / 10,000 psi)Range ca. 250 miles (400 km)

    Top Speed 106 mph (170 km/h)

    BatteryLi-Ion, Output (Continuous/ Peak): 24 kW / 30 kW (40hp); Capacity 6.8 Ah, 1.4 kWh

    A-Class F-Cell

    Progress Fuel Cell TechnologyNext Generation FCVs

  • Concept of Honda

  • After 2015, with lowered vehicle production costs and further developed hydrogen infrastructure, Hyundai will begin manufacturing hydrogen fuel cell vehicles for

    consumer retail sales.

    The ix35 Fuel Cell Specifications

    The Hyundai Strategy, published on Feb. 27th 2013

    Hyundai plans to build 1,000 ix35 Fuel Cell vehicles by 2015 for lease to public and private fleets, primarily in Europe, where the European Union has established a

    hydrogen road map and initiated construction of hydrogen fueling stations.

  • Phileas-Bus in Colognein daily use in public trafic

    Source: HyCologne -Wasserstoff Region Rheinland

  • Source: Vossloh

  • Anode: H2 2 H+ + 2 e-Cathode: 2 H+ + O2 + 2 e- H2O---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Sum: H2 + O2 H2O

    CnH2(n+1) + (3n+1)/2 O2 nCO2 + (n+1)/2 H2O

    Comparison of Power-Trains IGasoline/ Diesel- Vehicles

    H2/FC- vehicles

    Battery-Vehicles

    (double range) I

    Cathode: LixCn nC + x Li+ + x e-Anode: Li1-xMn2O4+ xLi +xe- LiMn2O4------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    ---------

    Batt.: Li1-xMn2O4+ LixCn LiMn2O4 + nC

  • Electricity-Management

    Powertrain of a H2/FC-hybrid-vehicle

  • Market segments for battery-and fuel cell vehicles

    Original-Source: Coalition Study

    Annual range

    (1000 km)

    < 10

    > 20

    10- 20

    Compakt Class Medium Class Comfort-Classc l a s s o f v e h i c l e s

    Fuel cell vehicles

    hybridised

    Battery-Vehicles

    Plug-in-VehiclesFC- Vehicles

  • As personal mobility, EV is viable for inner-city travel, and FCHV for inter-city travel.

    Cover Area of FCHV and EV EV: inner-city

    FCHV: inter-city travelSmall

    Middle

    Large

    Short-range Middle-range Long-range

    CommuterTown use

    Long-distance trucksExpressway buses

    Middle & large passenger cars

    City busCourier vehicles

    EV

    FCHV

    PHV(Biofuel)

    Concept of TOYOTA

  • Number of passenger vehicles (hybrid) which can be supplied per ha

    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    70

    80

    Biodie

    sel (R

    ME)

    Ethan

    ol wh

    eat

    Ethan

    ol sho

    rt rota

    tion f

    orestr

    yBio

    -meth

    ane

    BTL

    CGH2

    short

    rotat

    ion fo

    restry

    LH2 s

    hort r

    otatio

    n fore

    stry

    CGH2

    PV

    LH2 P

    VCG

    H2 w

    indpo

    wer

    LH2 w

    indpo

    wer

    [

    P

    a

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    v

    e

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    i

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    e

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    /

    h

    a

    ] Diesel engineOtto engineFuel cell

    Bandwidth

    Annual mileage passenger vehicle: 12,000 km

    Reference vehicle: VW Golf

    *) *)

    *) more than 99% of the land area can still be used for other purposes e.g. agriculture

    Source: LBST

  • Comparison of Fuel Cell System and Internal Combustion Engine

    Power in %

    E

    f

    f

    i

    c

    i

    e

    n

    c

    y

    i

    n

    %

    Medium PowerPassenger Car Bus /Truck

    with HydrogenFuel Cell Systems

    Source: IBZ

  • 50 ltr. E 105 ltr. Ethanol=^

    12,5 kg Wheat106 MJ (29,4 kWh)

    80 MJ (22,2 kWh)

    9,5 kg Wheat

    22 kg WheatNecessary area of farmland: 39 m2

    Consumption: 6l/100 km 2,5 kg Bread /100 km

    E10-Balance

    External EnergyNot CO2-free !

    Alternative

    Annual range :15 000km 375 kg Bread = 585 m2 Farmland^

  • J.Tpler

    (%)

    100

    70

    54

    30

    12

    Comparison hydrogen Wind-Gas for mobile application

    Efficiencies: (elektrolysis) = 70%

    (Sabatier) = 78%

    (NEDC, ICE) = 22%

    (NEDC, FC) = 42%

    Electricity from

    Wind&PVElektrolysis Methani-

    sation(Sabatier)

    Transport

    Distribution

    Fuel Cell

    Combustion

  • J.Tpler

    Eprim

    8,3

    4,5

    2,4

    1

    Electricity from

    Wind&PV

    Elektrolysis Methani-sation

    (Sabatier)

    Transport

    Distribution

    Fuel Cell

    Combustion

    3,4

    5,8

    Efficiencies: (elektrolysis) = 70%

    (Sabatier) = 78%

    (NEDC, ICE) = 22%

    (NEDC, FC) = 42%

    Comparison hydrogen Wind-Gas for mobile application

  • Optiresource (Daimler AG)

    See:

    http://www2.daimler.com/sustainability/optiresource/index.html

  • Thank you very much for your attention!

    And see us occasionally at

    www.dwv-info.de!

    Which are the questions I can answer at first?

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