why hybrid vehicles? - l. david roper ?? toyota camry hybrid, ... • lexus ct hybrid, es hybrid,...

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  • Lifelong-Learning-Institute Course Hybrid, Plug-in-Hybrid & Battery-Electric Cars

    L. David Roper Professor Emeritus of Physics, VPI&SU

    roperld@vt.edu http://tinyurl.com/RoperLDavid

    1. HEVs: Hybrid-Electric Vehicles (Baby step to zero emissions) http://tinyurl.com/HEVsRoper

    2. PHEVs: Plug-in Hybrid-Electric Vehicles (Juvenile step to zero emissions) http://tinyurl.com/PHEVsRoper

    3. BEVs: Battery-Electric Vehicles (Zero emissions with renewable energy) http://tinyurl.com/BEVsRoper 1

    mailto:roperld@vt.eduhttp://tinyurl.com/RoperLDavidhttp://tinyurl.com/HEVsRoperhttp://tinyurl.com/PHEVsRoperhttp://tinyurl.com/BEVsRoper

  • Terminology ICE = Internal Combustion Engine car (gasoline or diesel). mHEV = mild Hybrid car: large ICE + very small battery (~0.5 kWh) + small inline electric motor. Battery usually 200-300 volts; some 48-volts. HEV = hybrid car: medium ICE + small battery (~1.5-kWh) + 1 or 2 electric motors. Battery usually 200-300 volts. SOC = State of Charge of battery. PHEV = Plug-in Hybrid car: small ICE + larger battery (8/20-kWh) + 1 or 2 electric motors + plug. SOC = State of Charge of battery. BEV = Battery Electric car: large battery (30/120-kWh) + 1 or 2 powerful electric motors + plug. Battery >300 volts. SOC = State of Charge of battery. EV = Electric Vehicle = PHEV or BEV. Electrified Vehicle = all of the above except ICE.

    The definitions are often confused in news and car advertisements. Energy: kilowatt-hours (kWh), Power = Energy/time = kilowatts (kW) 2

    http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-car-battery/http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-car-battery/http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-car-battery/http://blog.caranddriver.com/2018-audi-a8-to-feature-48-volt-hybrid-system/http://blog.caranddriver.com/2018-audi-a8-to-feature-48-volt-hybrid-system/http://blog.caranddriver.com/2018-audi-a8-to-feature-48-volt-hybrid-system/http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-car-battery/http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-car-battery/http://www.hybridcars.com/hybrid-car-battery/

  • Hybrid Vehicles (HEVs) http://tinyurl.com/HEVsRoper

    Toyota Prius (7 models), Prius C (4 models), Prius V (4 models) Toyota Camry Hybrid, Avalon Hybrid, RAV4 Hybrid, Highlander Hybrid Ford C-Max Hybrid, Fusion Hybrid, Mustang Hybrid (TBA), F-150 Hybrid (TBA) Honda Accord Hybrid Chevrolet Malibu Hybrid Hyundai Sonata Hybrid, Ioniq Hybrid Kia Optima Hybrid, Niro Hybrid Nissan Rogue Hybrid (limited availability) Lincoln MKZ Hybrid Lexus CT Hybrid, ES Hybrid, GS Hybrid, NX Hybrid, RX Hybrid, LC Hybrid Infiniti Q50 Hybrid Acura NSX Sport Hybrid, RLX Sport Hybrid, MDX Sport Hybrid More are very expensive or on the way. Some HEVs have been discontinued but are available on the used market. Note that Toyota/Lexus lead the field with excellent engineering.

    https://www.toyota.com/prius/?addisclaimer=tss,2016_best_selling_brand&srchid=sem|GOOGLE|Prius|BrandCategory_Hybrid|Toyota_Hybrid_General_E|Prius_LB_Sustain_3.31.17|Prius_Compare&gclid=CLDNg9rgwdYCFYiyswodYMsNTA&gclsrc=dshttps://www.toyota.com/priusc/?srchid=sem|GOOGLE|Prius_C|Model_Prius_C|Prius_C_General_E|PriusC_Evergreen_6_1_16|Prius_C_MLP&gclid=CIm02IzhwdYCFYSGswodOHwBcQ&gclsrc=dshttps://www.toyota.com/priusv/?srchid=sem|GOOGLE|Prius_V|Model_Prius_V|Prius_V_General_E|PriusV_Evergreen_6_1_16|Prius_V_MLP&gclid=CNnfvK7hwdYCFUqiswodqqgDdA&gclsrc=dshttps://www.toyota.com/camryhybrid/?srchid=sem|GOOGLE|Camry_Hybrid|Model_Camry_Hybrid|CamryHybrid_General_E|Camry_Launch_9.1.17|Camry_Hybrid_MLP&gclid=CKHhidjhwdYCFYiyswodYMsNTA&gclsrc=dshttps://www.toyota.com/avalonhybrid/?srchid=sem|GOOGLE|Avalon_Hybrid|Model_Avalon_Hybrid|AvalonHybrid_General_E|Avalon_Hybrid_MY_Ads_7.6.17|Avalon_Hybrid_MLP&gclid=CMGd2fLhwdYCFfmwswod4fgEtg&gclsrc=dshttps://www.toyota.com/rav4hybrid/?srchid=sem|GOOGLE|RAV4_Hybrid|Model_RAV4_Hybrid|RAV4_Hybrid_General_E|RAV4_Hybrid_ETAs_8.25.17|RAV4_Hybrid_MLP&gclid=CLHn7u7fwdYCFYiyswodYMsNTA&gclsrc=dshttps://www.toyota.com/highlanderhybrid/?srchid=sem|GOOGLE|Highlander_Hybrid|Model_Highlander_Hybrid|Highlander_Hybrid_General_E|6_1_16_Restructure_PreExisting|HighlanderHybrid_MLP&gclid=CKnm1YDgwdYCFVCiswod-tMDCg&gclsrc=dshttp://www.ford.com/cars/c-max/2017/models/c-max-hybrid-se/?intcmp=fueleff-featcta-cmax-hybridhttp://www.ford.com/cars/c-max/2017/models/c-max-hybrid-se/?intcmp=fueleff-featcta-cmax-hybridhttp://www.ford.com/cars/c-max/2017/models/c-max-hybrid-se/?intcmp=fueleff-featcta-cmax-hybridhttp://www.ford.com/cars/fusion/2018/models/fusion-hybrid-s/?intcmp=fueleff-featcta-fusion-hybridhttps://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewdepaula/2017/04/10/hybrids-galore-ford-to-add-mustang-hybrid-f-150-hybrid-and-others-by-2020/#3467cf8a683fhttps://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewdepaula/2017/04/10/hybrids-galore-ford-to-add-mustang-hybrid-f-150-hybrid-and-others-by-2020/#3467cf8a683fhttps://www.forbes.com/sites/matthewdepaula/2017/04/10/hybrids-galore-ford-to-add-mustang-hybrid-f-150-hybrid-and-others-by-2020/#3467cf8a683fhttps://automobiles.honda.com/accord-hybridhttps://automobiles.honda.com/accord-hybridhttp://www.chevrolet.com/previous-year/malibu-mid-size-car?ppc=GOOGLE_700000001291955_71700000015841413_58700002041213909_p15978452733&gclid=CjwKCAjw0qLOBRBUEiwAMG5xMKxPq5xPj1gNThrELoVl4LjrSjGPwF0TksCwcalm6Iu2dJVocCOx1RoC-QQQAvD_BwEhttps://www.hyundaiusa.com/sonata-hybrid/index.aspxhttps://www.hyundaiusa.com/ioniq-hybrid/index.aspxhttps://www.kia.com/us/en/vehicle/optima-hybrid/2017https://www.kia.com/us/en/vehicle/niro/2017/hybrid systemhttps://www.nissanusa.com/crossovers/rogue?dcp=psn.58700002283338587&gclid=CjwKCAjw0qLOBRBUEiwAMG5xMNXep64KwNm0jnPMFY-b0FokJBlImtiWpFOsCsI1HgdNVI9nPNO5uRoCxgsQAvD_BwE&gclsrc=aw.ds&dclid=CML5nfPkwdYCFaK7swodxzoMVQhttp://www.lincoln.com/luxury-cars/mkz/2017/?searchid=768208708|39270729246|27652104156&s_kwcid=AL!2519!3!184314431483!e!!!!lincoln hybrid car&ef_id=Wbk7OwAAA4bppF-i:20170926022307:shttp://www.lexus.com/models/categories/hybrids?pdsrch=sem_google_lexus hybrid car_e_192494059832&bknode=Brand_Segment_Hybrid+Car&gclid=Cj0KCQjw9afOBRDWARIsAJW4nvwmzIrp_wInp0m3sYZS_fDiAUnx5lcGYnNzK39Bk5sCpjWPeHJfcNcaAqTrEALw_wcB&gclsrc=aw.dshttps://www.infinitiusa.com/sedan/q50https://www.infinitiusa.com/sedan/q50https://www.acura.com/sport-hybrid

  • My Hybrid Experience

    2005 Toyota Prius II 2009 plug-in conversion

    2006 Toyota AWD Highlander Hybrid 2014 attempted plug-in conversion

    2016 Toyota AWD RAV4 Hybrid

    The last two for my wife and long trips; I drive only BEVs since 2012!

    4

  • Why Hybrid Vehicles? Emissions from vehicles are causing global

    warming and human sickness. HEVs produce much less emissions than ICEs.

    HEV use about 50% less liquid fuel than the average new vehicle in the same class because electric motors are ~3 times ICE efficiency.

    Oil extraction is peaking in the U.S. Natural-gas extraction will peak soon in the U.S. Oil extraction for the world will peak within two

    decades. Natural-gas extraction for the world will peak

    within two decades. It is expensive and dangerous to transport.

    http://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USOilBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USOilBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USOilBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USOilBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USGasBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USGasBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USGasBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USGasBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USGasBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USGasBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/USGasBoom_Bust.htmhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldCrudeOilFuture.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldCrudeOilFuture.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldNaturalGasFuture.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldNaturalGasFuture.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldNaturalGasFuture.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldNaturalGasFuture.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldNaturalGasFuture.pdfhttp://www.roperld.com/science/minerals/WorldNaturalGasFuture.pdf

  • Types of Hybrid Vehicles Parallel Hybrids

    Motor & Engine turn wheels. For example, the

    Toyota Prius HEV

    Series Hybrids For example, the

    Nissan Versa e-Power Toyota Prius HEV

    Power-split device

    Only the electric motor turns the wheels.

    For both types the ICE, gravity and kinetic energy charge the battery.

    (Regeneration)

    DC AC

    Series/Parallel Hybrids For example: Toyota Prius HEV & most hybrids

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle_drivetrainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle_drivetrainhttps://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hybrid_vehicle_drivetrain

  • 7

  • Electric Energy Regeneration for HEVs and EVs

    The electric motor(s) is(are) used as a generator to charge the battery.

    When brake pedal is pressed, except in emergencies and at very low speeds, due to kinetic energy decreasing. Therefore, mechanical brakes last longer!

    When going down a hill due to gravitational energy decreasing.

    When accelerator is not being depressed, due to kinetic energy decreasing.

    8

  • EPA Driving Cycles

    9

    These cycles may not

    conform to the way you

    drive.

    https://www.epa.gov/vehicle-and-fuel-emissions-testing/dynamometer-drive-schedules

  • EPA Monroney Label for Cars

    1: Vehicle Technology & Fuel. 2: Fuel Economy. 3: Comparing to Other Vehicles 4: Save/Spend More of 5 Years Compared. 5: Fuel Consumption Rat