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Slide 2 CLASS #1: AP CLASS #2: AP/AdvP CLASS #3: AdvP, PP CLASS #4: PP CLASS #5: ADVERBIALS CLASS #6: ADVERBIALS CLASS #7: ADVERBIALS AND MIDTERM OVERVIEW CLASS #8: MIDTERM OVERVIEW and SIMPLE SENTENCE CLASS #9: SIMPLE SENTENCE CLASS #10: SIMPLE SENTENCE CLASS #11: COMPLEX SENTENCE CLASS #12: COMPLEX SENTENCE CLASS #13: COMPLEX SENTENCE, WRAP-UP & ORAL EXAM HINTS MIDTERM Slide 3 SINCE WE ARE SLIGHTLY BEHIND SCHEDULE IN TERMS OF PRACTICE CLASSES THE MIDTERM EXAM IS RE-SCHEDULED FOR MAY 15, 2012 THATS TUESDAY FOUR WEEKS FROM NOW. THE EXACT TIME WILL BE ANNOUNCED SOON, BUT IT WILL BE IN THE AFTERNOON AND IT WILL TAKE PLACE IN THE AUDITORIUM (AMFITEATAR) Slide 4 MIDTERM TEST - OVERVIEW WHAT IT REALLY LOOKS LIKE ITS WORTH TAKING A GOOD LOOK, BECAUSE ITS WORTH 25% (OF YOUR FINAL GRADE) Slide 5 Slide 6 Slide 7 NOW, LET ME WALK YOU THROUGH EACH TASK SO THAT YOU CAN BE FULLY PREPARED Slide 8 Slide 9 1. Identify the word class of the underlined items in the following sentences: a) He was the last person to hear the news.__________ b) He finished last. __________ c) She thinks highly of her teachers. __________ d) Ive been feeling under stress lately. __________ e) It may be many years before the situation improves. __________ f) The task before us is a difficult one. __________ g) We drove up to Inverness to see my father. __________ h) In case of emergency, take the up escalator. __________ i) You should have told me so before. __________ j) The travel agent recommended a cruise up the Neva. __________ k) Dont you ever give up! __________ ADJ ADV P CONJ. P ADV ADJ ADV P ADVERB PARTICLE OF A PHRASAL VERB Slide 10 Slide 11 2. Underline the required phrases in the following sentences and analyze their structure and syntactic function. Examples: 2.1. APs Adjective phrases a) This is a very interesting book. S: _____________________ F: ______________________ b) She isnt old enough to get married. S: _____________________ F: _____________________ c) We are delighted that you have made it. S: _____________________ F: ____________________ d) He found her prettier than her sister. S: _____________________ F: _____________________ She is [very happy] S: AdjP=Adv+Adj; F: Cs He speaks [fluently enough]. S: AdvP=Adv+Adv; F: A She has [a house in the woods] S: PP=P+NP; F: complement of NP AP=Adv + ADJpremodication in an NP AP=Adv + ADJ +Cl (n.f.)Cs AP=ADJ +Cl (f.)Cs AP=ADJ +PPCo Slide 12 2. Underline the required phrases in the following sentences and analyze their structure and syntactic function. Examples: 2.2. AdvPs Adverb phrases e) He plays the piano surprisingly well S: ___________________ F: ___________________ f) I hope to meet him soon enough. S: ____________________ F:___________________ g) He spoke too fast for us to take notes. S: _________________ F: _____________________ She is [very happy] S: AdjP=Adv+Adj; F: Cs He speaks [fluently enough]. S: AdvP=Adv+Adv; F: A She has [a house in the woods] S: PP=P+NP; F: complement of NP AdvP=Adv + ADVA(dverbial) AdvP=Adv + ADVA(dverbial) AdvP=Adv + ADV+ Cl(non-f.) A(dverbial) Slide 13 2. Underline the required phrases in the following sentences and analyze their structure and syntactic function. Examples: 2.3. PPs Prepositional phrases h) An extra 10 million will be sent to the flooded region. S: ___________________________ F: _________ i) For certain personal reasons I shall not be able to attend. S: ___________________________ F: _________ j) Were very sorry about the damage we caused. S: ___________________________ F: ______________ k) From what I heard, the companys in deep trouble. S: ___________________________ F: _____________ She is [very happy] S: AdjP=Adv+Adj; F: Cs He speaks [fluently enough]. S: AdvP=Adv+Adv; F: A She has [a house in the woods] S: PP=P+NP; F: complement of NP PP=P +NP obligatory ADVERBIAL PP= P + NP complement of APPP=P +NP optional ADVERBIAL PP=P +Cl (finite, wh) obligatory ADVERBIAL optional ADVERBIAL PP=P +NP Slide 14 Slide 15 3. Arrange the adjectives into the correct order within the NP: a. dress (silk/ long/ extravagant/ red) _____________________________________________________ b. dog (brown/ friendly/ large) _____________________________________________________ c. biscuits (home-made/ delicious/ chocolate) _____________________________________________________ d. skirt (striped / tight / silk) _____________________________________________________ e. woman (thirty-year old / attractive / tall / blonde) _____________________________________________________ an extravagant long red silk dress a friendly large brown dog delicious home-made chocolate biscuits a tight striped silk skirt an attractive tall thirty-year old blonde woman Slide 16 Slide 17 4. Transform the following sentences by changing the nouns with adjectives into verbs followed by suitable expressions (AdvP, AdjP, PP): a. There has been a drastic fall in the dollar. _________________________________________________________ b. Why did she give me such a stern look? _________________________________________________________ c. Tom is a good cook. _________________________________________________________ d. I gave her a fatherly talk. _________________________________________________________ e. The flowers had a fragrant smell. _________________________________________________________ The dollar has fallen drastically. Why did she look at me so sternly? Tom cooks well. I talked to her in a fatherly way/manner. The flowers smelt/smelled fragrant. Slide 18 Slide 19 5. Rephrase the sentences so that they begin with the words in italics: I have never met such a man. _______________________________________________ You should not sign the document on any account. ____________________________________ I realized what happened only when they left. _________________________________________ A truer word has seldom been spoken. ______________________________________________ Never have I met such a man. On no account should you sign the document. Only when they left did I realize what happened. Seldom has a truer word been spoken. Slide 20 Slide 21 6. Underline the adverbs in each of the following sentences and determine their syntactic functions (1. Adverbial - adjunct, conjunct, disjunct; 2. Modifier of NP, AdjP, AdvP, PP, Det; 3. Complement of P): a. Understandably, the project was a success. b. She has an awfully bad temper. c. He showed us straight to our seats. d. Mary works very hard. e. He is quite a nice man. f. Yet, she could never forgive him. g. Over twenty people came to the party. h. This letter came from abroad. ADVERBIAL - disjunct MODIFIER - AP MODIFIER - PP 1:MODIFIER - AdvP2:ADVERBIAL- adjunct MODIFIER - NP 1: ADVERBIAL - conjunct 2: ADVERBIAL- adjunct MODIFIER - Determiner Complement of P Slide 22 Slide 23 Exercises 7 & 8 deal with ADVERBIALS STRUCTURE, POSITION AND SEMANTIC CLASSIFICATION Slide 24 7. Underline all the adverbials in the following sentences and specify their a. type (adjunct, conjunct, disjunct), and subtype; b. position in sentence (I, M, F): Example: The people upstairs are noisy [in the evening]. type: adjunct (time, time-when); position: F a) It is my opinion, personally, that she is totally wrong. b) Studying hard, she got a scholarship. c) I go to school by bicycle. d) The lady in the last row was talking very loudly. e) In spite of his excellent knowledge, he failed the exam. DISJUNCTSTYLEPOSITION: M ADJUNCT CONTINGENCY: REASON POSITION: I ADJUNCT (to school) SPACE/PLACE: GOAL POSITION: F ADJUNCT (by bicycle) PROCESS: MEANS POSITION: F ADJUNCT PROCESS: MANNER POSITION: F ADJUNCT CONTINGENCY: CONCESSION POSITION: I Slide 25 7. Underline all the adverbials in the following sentences and specify their a. type (adjunct, conjunct, disjunct), and subtype; b. position in sentence (I, M, F): Example: The people upstairs are noisy [in the evening]. type: adjunct (time, time-when); position: F f) I miss you so much! g) To sum up, the initial hypothesis was flawed. h) She is probably going to dump him. i) As far as science is concerned, this is irrelevant. j) He usually sees his child twice a week. ADJUNCT DEGREE/INTENSIFIER: AMPLIFIER POSITION: F CONJUNCT SUMMATIVE POSITION: I ADJUNCT MODALITY: APPROXIMATION POSITION: M ADJUNCT VIEWPOINT (sentence adjunct) POSITION: I ADJUNCT (usually) TIME: FREQUENCY POSITION: M ADJUNCT (twice) TIME: FREQUENCY POSITION: F Slide 26 7. Underline all the adverbials in the following sentences and specify their a. type (adjunct, conjunct, disjunct), and subtype; b. position in sentence (I, M, F): k) Resentfully, she accepted his invitation. l) I only tried to illustrate a problem. m) By the way, talking softly like that, I hardly kept my cool. n) Frankly speaking, he did not drive fast enough, so I could not pass Massa. ADJUNCT SUBJUNCT: GENERAL/VOLITIONAL POSITION: I ADJUNCT FOCUSING: LIMITER POSITION: M CONJUNCT (by) TRANSITIONAL POSITION: I ADJUNCT (talking) CONTINGENCY: CAUSE/REASON POSITION: I ADJUNCT (hardy) DEGREE/INTENSIFIER: DOWNTONER POSITION: M DISJUNCT (Frankly) STYLE POSITION: I ADJUNCT (fast enough) PROCESS: MANNER POSITION: F ADJUNCT (so I ) CONTINGENCY: RESULT POSITION: F Slide 27 8. Underline all the adverbials in the following sentences and specify their syntactic structure (type of phrase or clause): Example: The people upstairs are noisy [in the evening]. structure: PP a) When red, these apples are ripe. b) From an ecological point of view, these cars are considered to be very similar. c) The man in the corner complained very angrily. d) The woman standing behind you is rather sad, although she has just received her salary. VERBLESS ADJECTIVE CLAUSE PP AdvP FINITE CLAUSE Slide 28 8. Underline all the adverbials in the following sentences and specify their syntactic structure (type of phrase or clause): Example: The people upstairs are noisy [in the evening]. structure: PP e) Hardly anyone went to the meeting on Wednesday because they were not given enough time to prepare. f) Driving home, I ran into some problems. g) To be honest, I dont think that she is telling the truth. h) She risked her job in order to solve the problem. PP FINITE CLAUSE NON-FINITE CLAUSE Slide 29 8. Underline all the adverbials in the following sentences and specify their syntactic structure (type of phrase or clause): Example: The people upstairs are noisy [in the evening]. structure: PP i) She learns English with great enthusiasm. j) They had covered a long distance. PP X = THERE ARE NO ADVERBIALS IN THIS SENTENCE. In He swam a long distance., a long distance is an ADVERBIAL, because you can ask a question How much did he swim?, although it is ambiguous, since it can also be an object (A long distance was swum.). Slide 30 THE SIMPLE SENTENCE LECTURE #1 2012-04-25 Slide 31 Basic concepts of a science are notoriously difficult to define, e.g. atom, number, society, etc. WHAT IS A SENTENCE? Slide 32 SENTENCE In the traditional view, a sentence is defined: A sequence of words that is complete in itself, conveying a statement, question, exclamation or command, typically containing a subject and predicate. (OED) A group of words that usually contains a subject and a verb, and expresses a complete idea (LDOCE) A grammatical unit that is syntactically independent and has a subject that is expressed or, as in imperative sentences, understood and a predicate that contains at least one finite verb. (MWED) Slide 33 SENTENCE In computational linguistics, a sentence is defined: A sequence of words that begins with capital letter and ends in ., ! or ?. (Manning and Schutze) Slide 34 SENTENCE: some examples A dog sleeps. A friendly dog in the kennel next to our house sleeps like a baby. Yes. No! Good. Aaaah, a dog! The more, the merrier! To hell with Skyrim! Slide 35 SENTENCE: some examples A dog sleeps [wherever it finds a suitable place]. I know [that a friendly dog in the kennel next to our house sleeps like a baby]. Stop [doing that]! Stop that! Stop! Wow! A-ha. Slide 36 SENTENCE: what examples tell us Not all sentences contain the subject and the verb: Structures such as Wow!, Yes., Aaaah, a dog!, The more, the marrier., which do not contain a subject and a verb, are called SENTENCE FRAGMENTS or MINOR SENTENCES. Structures such as A dog sleeps. and I bought a book yesterday in a nice bookstore somewhere on the West Side., which do contain both a subject and a verb, are called FULL SENTENCES or MAJOR SENTENCES. Slide 37 SENTENCE: what examples tell us Not all sentences contain just one subject and one verb: Structures such as A dog sleeps. and I bought a book yesterday in a nice bookstore somewhere on the West Side., which contain just one subject and one verb, are called SIMPLE SENTENCES. Structures such as A dog sleeps [wherever it finds a suitable place]. and I know [that a friendly dog in the kennel next to our house sleeps like a baby]., which contain more than one subject and a verb (i.e. which contain more than one clause), are called COMPLEX SENTENCES. Slide 38 SENTENCE vs. CLAUSE WHAT IS A CLAUSE? SENTENCE CLAUSE Slide 39 In the traditional view, a clause is defined: A unit of grammatical organization next below the sentence in rank, and in traditional grammar said to consist of a subject and predicate. (OED) A group of words that contains a subject and a verb, but which is usually only part of a sentence. (LDOCE) A group of words containing a subject and a predicate and forming part of a compound or complex sentence. (MWED) Slide 40 SENTENCE vs. CLAUSE CLAUSE a syntactic unit which is larger than a phrase and which consists of ONE PREDICATION. Clauses can be both FINITE and NON-FINITE, and DEPENDENT and INDEPENDENT. SENTENCE the biggest syntactic unit. It consists of at least one clause. Sentences are always FINITE. Sentences are always INDEPENDENT. E.g. To be happy means to be in love. clause (non-finite), function: S, structure: VCsclause (non-finite), function: Od, structure: VA clause (finite) = sentence, structure: S(clause) V Od(clause) EVERY SENTENCE IS A CLAUSE. NOT ALL CLAUSES ARE SENTENCES. Slide 41 SENTENCE vs. CLAUSE Some other examples: I am happy. I want to be happy. I know that he wants to be happy. clause (finite) = sentence, structure: S V Cs clause (finite) = sentence, structure: S V Od(clause) clause (non-finite), function: Od, structure: V Cs clause (finite) = sentence, structure: S V Od(clause) clause (finite), function: Od, structure: S V Od (clause) clause (non-finite), function: Od, structure: VCs Slide 42 SENTENCE vs. CLAUSE The previous example showed us an important feature of all human languages including English: LANGUAGES ARE RECURSIVE IN OTHER WORDS, YOU CAN EMBED A CLAUSE INTO ANOTHER CLAUSE AND THEN EMBED YET ANOTHER CLAUSE INTO THAT CLASUE, AND THEN DO IT AGAIN Mary is telling the truth. I know [that Mary is telling the truth]. I know [that John knows [that Mary is telling the truth]]. I know [that John knows [ that Bill knows [that Mary is telling the truth]]]. I know [that John knows [ that Bill knows [ that the police believe [that Mary is telling the truth]]]]. Slide 43 STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION CLASSIFICATION OF SENTENCES Slide 44 CLASSIFICAITION OF SENTENCES STRUCTURAL CLASSIFICATION = based on the NUMBER AND TYPE of clauses in a sentence: SENTENCE SIMPLECOMPLEXCOMPOUND SIMPLE SENTENCE consists of a SINGLE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE. [The students] [didnt know] [the answer to that question] = SVO COMPLEX SENTENCE consists of a MAIN/SUPERORDINATE CLAUSE and AT LEAST one DEPENDENT/SUBORDINATE CLAUSE. [The students] [know] [that the project deadline is difficult to meet] = SVO (O realized as clause) SIMPLE SENTENCE consists of a SINGLE INDEPENDENT/MAIN CLAUSE. [The students] [didnt know] [the answer to that question] = SVO COMPUND SENTENCE consists of a at least TWO MAIN CLAUSES. [She] [took] [the test] [in June] and [she] [passed] [it] [with flying colors]. S V O (A) Conj. S V O (A) Slide 45 VERB CLASSES One of the properties of verbs is VALENCY. VALENCY is the number of obligatory elements that a particular verb takes. On the basis of VALENCY verbs can be divided into five types. Slide 46 VERB CLASSES VERBS INTENSIVE EXTENSIVE INTRANSITIVETRANSITIVE monotransitive ditransitive complex transitive INTENSIVE VERBS = also known as COPULAR or LINKING VERBS = verbs which are always followed by Cs or an obligatory A(dverbial): Mary seems happy. => happy is a subject complement = SVCs John is in his room. He lives in Paris. => in his room and in Paris are obligatory adverbials = SVA INTENSIVE VERBS = also known as COPULAR or LINKING VERBS = verbs which are always followed by Cs or an obligatory A(dverbial): Mary seems happy. => happy is a subject complement = SVCs John is in his room. He lives in Paris. => in his room and in Paris are obligatory adverbials = SVA INTRANSITIVE VERBS require no obligatory complement, e.g. disappear, run, sleep, vanish, etc. The sun is shining. That piece of evidence disappeared. The baby is sleeping. = SV INTRANSITIVE VERBS require no obligatory complement, e.g. disappear, run, sleep, vanish, etc. The sun is shining. That piece of evidence disappeared. The baby is sleeping. = SV TRANSITIVE VERBS they require at least one obligatory element, depending on the number and type of obligatory elements that they take, they can be divided into three subgroups. MONOTRANSITIVE VERBS they require the DIRECT OBJECT I wrote two letters. I own a small boat. She broke the statue. = SVO MONOTRANSITIVE VERBS they require the DIRECT OBJECT I wrote two letters. I own a small boat. She broke the statue. = SVO DITRANSITIVE VERBS they require both the DIRECT OBJECT and the INDIRECT OBJECT: I gave her two letters. I showed the lady her new car. She sent me the statue. = SVOiOd DITRANSITIVE VERBS they require both the DIRECT OBJECT and the INDIRECT OBJECT: I gave her two letters. I showed the lady her new car. She sent me the statue. = SVOiOd COMPLEX TRANSITIVE VERBS they require the DIRECT OBJECT and either the OBLIGATORY ADVERBIAL or the OBJECT COMPLEMENT: I put the book on the desk. = SVOA I elected him chairman. = SVOCo COMPLEX TRANSITIVE VERBS they require the DIRECT OBJECT and either the OBLIGATORY ADVERBIAL or the OBJECT COMPLEMENT: I put the book on the desk. = SVOA I elected him chairman. = SVOCo Sometimes one verb can belong to more than one class. If one verb belongs to more than one class we talk of MULTIPLE CLASS MEMBERSHIP. e.g. MAKE can be DITRANSITIVE, MONOTRANSITIVE and COMPLEX TRANSITIVE She made her children a chocolate cake. = DITRANSITIVE She made a chocolate cake. = MONOTRANSITIVE She made them extremely happy. = COMPLEX TRANSITIVE Verbs which can belong to more than one class, can sometimes cause AMBIGUITY: I called her a doctor. => two possible interpretations: DITRANSITIVE: She is sick. I called a doctor to help her. COMPLEX TRANSITIVE: She is a doctor. I addressed her as a doctor. Sometimes one verb can belong to more than one class. If one verb belongs to more than one class we talk of MULTIPLE CLASS MEMBERSHIP. e.g. MAKE can be DITRANSITIVE, MONOTRANSITIVE and COMPLEX TRANSITIVE She made her children a chocolate cake. = DITRANSITIVE She made a chocolate cake. = MONOTRANSITIVE She made them extremely happy. = COMPLEX TRANSITIVE Verbs which can belong to more than one class, can sometimes cause AMBIGUITY: I called her a doctor. => two possible interpretations: DITRANSITIVE: She is sick. I called a doctor to help her. COMPLEX TRANSITIVE: She is a doctor. I addressed her as a doctor. Slide 47 ON THE BASIS OF VERB CLASSES CLAUSE TYPES Slide 48 THE SINGLE VERB ELEMENT OF A SIMPLE SENTENCE IS ALWAYS A FINITE VP. SO, THESE ARE THE 7 TYPES OF SIMPLE SENTENCES IN ENGLISH Slide 49 CLAUSE TYPES Naturally, OPTIONAL ADVERBIAL may be added to sentences of any type: (Luckily) the sun is (already) shining. I (definitely) must send her a birthday card (tomorrow). The S, V, O and C are OBLIGATORY sentence elements, whereas the A can be either OBLIGATORY or OPTIONAL. The A is obligatory in the SVA and SVOA clause types: John often goes to the cinema. S(A)VA She kept the children in bed during the storm. SVOA(A) Slide 50 SYNTACTICALLY DEFINED SENTENCE ELEMENTS SYNTACTIC CONSTITUENTS (S, V, O, C, A) can be realized in different forms: PHRASES and CLAUSES Slide 51 SENTENCE ELEMENTS syntactically defined PP In the state of nirvana is how I want to feel. AdvP Here is the latest report from Tripoli. Tomorrow is Thursday. AP Beautiful beyond words is how I would describe her. Slide 52 SENTENCE ELEMENTS syntactically defined Slide 53 Slide 54 Slide 55 SEMANTICALLY SENTENCE ELEMENTS DEFINED Slide 56 SENTENCE ELEMENTS semantically defined Lets take a simple sentence as an example: Eric Cartman killed Kenny with a knife. SUBJECTVERBOBJECTADVERBIAL A syntactic analysis of the sentence would yield the following syntactic structure: SVOA However, there is another way to analyze the sentence from the semantic point of view. Slide 57 SENTENCE ELEMENTS semantically defined Semantically speaking, every verb describes a SITUATION in which one or more PARTICIPANTS are involved. If we look at the sentence Eric Cartman killed Kenny with a knife. we can say that the verb KILL describes a situation which involves three different participants: 1 = THE PERSON WHO PERFORMED THE ACTIVITY 2 = THE PERSON WHO WAS KILLED 3 = THE INSTRUMENT USED FOR KILLING Semantically, these participants are said to have specific SEMANTIC ROLES: 1. is THE AGENT, 2. is THE THEME/PATIENT, and 3. is the INSTRUMENT Semantically, these participants are said to have specific SEMANTIC ROLES: 1. is THE AGENT, 2. is THE THEME/PATIENT, and 3. is the INSTRUMENT Slide 58 SENTENCE ELEMENTS semantically defined One SYNTACTIC ELEMENT/CONSTITUENT can have VARIOUS SEMANTIC ROLES. For example, the SUBJECT can have three different semantic roles: John opened the door. (SUBJECT is the AGENT) The key opened the door. (SUBJECT is the INSTRUMENT) The door opened. (SUBJECT is the THEME/PATIENT) Actually, this is just the tip of the iceberg: the subject can have as many as THIRTEEN (13!!!) different semantic roles. Slide 59 SUBJECT semantically defined Slide 60 DIRECT OBJECT semantically defined Slide 61 INDIRECT OBJECT semantically defined Slide 62 COMPLEMENTS semantically defined Slide 63 NOW Slide 64 SOMETHING COMPLETELY DIFFERENT Slide 65 CONCORD Slide 66 BUT THIS IS NOT CONCORD! THIS IS CONCORDE. UNLIKE CONCORDE, CONCORD IS A GRAMMATICAL CATEGORY. Slide 67 CONCORD Concord is AGREEMENT between two sentence elements with respect to certain grammatical features. Officially: CONCORD (sometimes termed AGREEMENT) is the relationship between TWO GRAMMATICAL UNITS such that one of them DISPLAYS A PARTICULAR FEATURE (e.g. plurality) that ACCORDS WITH A DISPLAYED (or semantically implicit) FEATURE in the other unit. There are several types of concord. Even in English! But more about it later. Slide 68 WHERE CAN WE SEE CONCORD? *Mary were in London yesterday. S-V concord (person & number) *John cut herself. S-O concord (gender, person, number) *John cut themselves. S-O concord (gender, person, number) *John is an actress. S-Cs concord (gender, person, number) *John considers Bill an actress. S-Co concord (gender, person, number) *John considers them an actor. S-Co concord (gender, person, number) Slide 69 CONCORD types of CONCORD Depending on SENTENCE ELEMENT Subject-verb concord Subject- complement concord Object- complement concord Depending on GRAMMATICAL FEATURES Concord of NUMBER Concord of PERSON Concord of GENDER Slide 70 S-V concord: NOUN PHRASES The CHANGE in male attitudes is most obvious in industry. The CHANGES in male attitude are most obvious in industry. When the subject is realized by a noun phrase, the phrase counts as singular IF ITS HEAD IS SINGULAR. Slide 71 S-V concord: AdvP and PP Slowly does it! In the evenings is best for me. Prepositional phrases and adverb phrases functioning as subjects count as SINGULAR. Slide 72 S-V concord: CLAUSES How they got there doesnt concern me. To treat them as hostages is criminal. Smoking cigarettes is dangerous to your health. Finite and non-finite clauses generally count as SINGULAR. However, there are some apparent exceptions. Slide 73 S-V concord: clauses add-on What were supposed to be new proposals were in fact modifications of earlier ones. What was once a palace is now a pile of rubble. Whatever book a Times reviewer praises sells well. What ideas he has are his wifes. These are NOMINAL RELATIVE CLAUSES: their number depends on the interpretation of the number of the WH-ELEMENT, e.g. with determiners WHAT and WHATEVER the concord depends on the number of the determined noun (the last two examples) Slide 74 S-V concord: general rules General rule of S-V concord: A subject which is not clearly semantically plural requires a singular verb. In other words: SINGULAR is the UNMARKED FORM which is to be used in neutral circumstances when there is no positive. This explains why in informal speech we can often hear: There is hundreds of people in the streets. Slide 75 S-V concord: exceptions Measles is sometimes serious. Our people are complaining. Apparent exceptions include SINGULAR NOUNS ending in S (e.g. measles, billards, mathematics, etc.) and PLURAL NOUNS lacking the S (e.g. cattle, people, clergy, etc.). Slide 76 S-V concord: exceptions Crime and Punishment is a great novel. Brother Karamzov is his masterpiece. The Cedars has a huge garden. Senior citizens means people over sixty. Plural noun phrases (including coordinate phrases) count as singular if they are used as NAMES, TITLES, QUOTATIONS, etc. Such NPs can be regarded as appositive structures with an implied singular head: the book Crime and Punishment, the expression senior citizens, etc. Slide 77 S-V concord: exceptions The Canterbury Tales exists in many manuscripts. The Canterbury Tales exist in many manuscripts. The titles of some works that are collection of stories may be counted as either singular or plural. Slide 78 Principles of grammatical concord: NOTIONAL concord & PROXIMITY No one except his own supporters AGREE with him. The head is NO ONE, but the verb agrees with SUPPORTERS this is called PROXIMITY. PROXIMITY (also called ATTRACTION) denotes agreement of the verb with a closely preceding NP in preference to agreement with the head of the NP that functions as subject: Proximity is here reinforced by NOTIONAL CONCORD (Only his own supporters agree with him). NOTIONAL CONCORD how the speaker understands the concept denoted with the NP (singular or plural) regardless of the grammatical form Slide 79 EXAMPLES OF NOTIONAL CONCORD Ten dollars is all I have left. [That amount is] Fifteen years represents a long period of his life. [That period is] Two miles is as far as they can walk. [That distance is] Two thirds of the area is under water. [That area is], BUT: Sixty people means a huge party. [That number of people means] Slide 80 Principles of grammatical concord: NOTIONAL concord & PROXIMITY Conflict between grammatical concord and proximity increases with the distance between the NP head of the subject and the VP (e.g. when an adverbial or a parenthesis intervenes between the subject and the verb). Proximity concord occurs mainly in unplanned discourse in writing it will be corrected to grammatical concord. We will discuss GRAMMATICAL CONCORD, NOTIONAL CONCORD and PROXIMITY in the following cases: Collective noun head Coordinated subject Indefinite expressions Slide 81 COLLECTIVE NOUNS The audience were enjoying every minute of it. The public are tired of demonstration. England have won the cup. Our Planning Committee have considered Singular collective nouns may be notionally plural. In BRITISH ENGLISH the verb may be EITHER SINGULAR or PLURAL. Slide 82 COLLECTIVE NOUNS The audience was enormous. The public consists of you and me. The crowd has been dispersed. The choice between singular and plural verbs depends in BRITISH ENGLISH on whether the group is being considered as a single undivided body or as a collection of individuals. On the whole: the plural is more popular in speech, whereas in writing the singular is preferred. Slide 83 COORDINATED SUBJECTS When a subject consists of TWO or MORE noun phrases (or clauses) coordinated by AND, we must make a distinction between: COORDINATION (PROPER) COORDINATIVE APPOSITION Slide 84 COORDINATION (PROPER) Tom and Alice ARE now ready. =[Tom is now ready and Alice is now ready.] What I say and what I think ARE my own affair. =[What I say is my own affair and what I think is my own affair] BUT: What I say and do IS my own affair. COORDINATION REFERS TO CASES WHEN WE HAVE FULL COORDINATED FORMS (not REDUCED FORMS). A PLURAL VERB IS USED EVEN IF EACH CONJOIN IS SINGULAR. Slide 85 COORDINATION (PROPER) His camera, his phone, his money WERE confiscated by the customs officials. A PLURAL VERB IS ALSO NEEDED WHEN THERE IS NO COORDINATOR. Slide 86 COORDINATION (PROPER) You problem and mine ARE similar. =[Your problem is similar to mine and mine is similar to yours.] What I say and do ARE two different things. =[What I say is one thing and what I do is another thing.] Conjoins expressing MUTUAL RELATIONSHIP are also PLURAL. Slide 87 COORDINATION PROPER TRICKY ISSUE Every adult and every child was holding a flag. Each senator and congressman was allocated two seats. Each of them has signed the petition. BUT: They have each signed allocated two seats. PREPOSED EACH AND EVERY HAVE A DISTRIBUTIVE EFFECT AND REQUIRE A SINGULAR VERB. Slide 88 COORDINATIVE APPOSITION This temple of ugliness and memorial to Victorian bad taste was erected in the main street of the city. BUT: His ages servant and the subsequent editor of his collected papers was with him at his deathbed. His ages servant and the subsequent editor of his collected papers were with him at his deathbed. SINGULAR IS USED IF THE SERVANT AND THE EDITOR ARE THE SAME PERSON (APPOSITIVE COORDINATION) AND PLURAL IS USED IF THEY ARE TWO DIFFERENT PERSONS (COORDINATION PROPER). Slide 89 COORDINATION WITH OR AND NOR 1. Either the Mayor or her deputy IS (ARE) bound to come. 2. What I say or what I think IS(ARE) no business of yours. 3. Either the strikers of the bosses (HAS) HAVE misunderstood the claim. 4. Either your brakes or your eyesight IS (ARE) at fault. 5. Either your eyesight or your brakes ARE (IS) at fault. When coordinated items have the same number, there is pure grammatical concord: when they are both singular (1 and 2) the verb is also singular, when they are both plural (3), the verb is also plural. When coordinated items do not have the same number, English follows the principle of PROXIMITY: whichever phrase comes last determines the number of the verb. (4 and 5). NOTBUT and NOT ONLYBUT behave like EITHEROR. Slide 90 INDEFINITE EXPRESSIONS AS SUBJECT - CONCORD Slide 91 THE END THANK YOU FOR YOUR TIME! CU NEXT WEEK!