conjuncts and adverbials

of 25/25
CONJUNCTS AND ADVERBIALS

Post on 21-Nov-2014

136 views

Category:

Documents

5 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

CONJUNCTS AND ADVERBIALS

Conjunctsy A conjunct is an adjunct that adds information to the sentence that is not considered part of the propositional content (or at least not essential) but which connects the sentence with previous parts of the discourse. y Rare though this may be, conjuncts may also connect to the following parts of the discourse.

It was raining. Therefore, we didnt go swimming. It was sunny. However, we stayed inside. You are such a dork. Still, I love you from the bottom of my heart.

y A coordination structure connects two words, phrases or clauses together, usually with the help of a coordinating conjunction:

[Gretchen and her daughter] bought [motor oil, spark plugs, and dynamite]. Take two of these and call me in the morning.

FUNCTIONS OF CONJUNCTS

Listing (indicating that what follows is a list of propositions)

To begin with, I have to tell you that I'm most displeased with your performance in the show. I also think you did a bad job painting the house. You're a lousy cook. You smell. Your hat is ... etc.

Enumerative (indicating items on a list of propositions)

First, we have to buy bread. Second, we need to take the car to the garage. Third, we have to call your dentist and make an appointment.

Additive (indicating that the content of the sentence is in addition to the preceding one) He has no money. In addition, he has no means of getting any. Summative (summing up, or concluding, on the preceding sentence(s)) A is B. A is C. To sum up, A is several things.

Appositive (rephrasing the preceding sentence) The French love music. In other words, music is appreciated in France. Resultative/inferential (indicating that the content of the sentence is a result of the events expressed in the preceding sentence) Miss Gold lost her job. She, therefore, had no money.

Antithetic (indicating that the content of the sentence is in contrast to the content of the preceding sentence) It is said that water flows up hill. On the contrary, it flows downhill Concessive (indicating that the content of the sentence "exists" despite the content in the preceding sentence) It is very cold. I went for my morning walk, however.

Temporal (indicating temporal relation between the content of the sentence and the preceding sentence)

I had lunch. Meanwhile, my wife had her hair cut.

What are ADVERBIALS?

An adverbial is a construction that modifies, or describes, verbs. When an adverbial modifies a verb, it changes the meaning of that verb. Not only does an adverb, one of the forms listed below in the chart, modify a verb, but there are other words and word groups that do also.

For example, a prepositional phrase, an infinitive phrase, and a nominal clause can all modify verbs. In every sentence pattern, the adverbial tells where, when, why, how, etc. There can be more than one adverbial in a sentence. They are also movable.

ADVERB

a word that modifies a verb. The easiest adverbs to find are those that end in -ly. Those adverbs are called manner adverbs. There are also frequency adverbs, adverbs of place, and adverbs of time. Examples: quickly, courageously, sheepishly.

ADVERBIAL

any structure, no matter what its form, that functions as a modifier of a verb. Example: I couldn't sleep well throughout the night.

Adverbial infinitive

an infinitive, which consists of the word to and the base form of the verb, used to modify a verb. Example. My father reads to improve his vocabulary.

Adverbial prepositional phrase

Movable phrases that begin with prepositions and modify verbs.

Example: We washed our hands after playing outside.

Dangling infinitive

a problem that occurs when the subject of the sentence is not the subject of an introductory adverbial infinitive. Example: To stay healthy, exercise is important.

Subordinate clause

a dependent clause introduced by a subordinating conjunction. Example: Before you watch TV, you need to finish your homework.

TIPS

The most common structure of modification is a prepositional phrase, which refers to form. Adverbial prepositional phrases can occupy several positions. They modify verbs. There are sometimes more than one adverbial prepositional phrase in a sentence. The subject of an adverbial infinitive is usually the subject of the sentence. It always begins with to. The most common subordinators that introduce adverbial clauses are after, because, before, since, so, until, when, while, although, if, and whereas.

EXERCISE: Underline the adverbial in each sentence and identify its form. What question do the adverbials answer? Then identify the sentence patterns.

QUESTIONS

My friend works at the grocery store. We went to the pool to swim. I went to sleep after midnight. Jack went outside for some fresh air. After the show, we went skating. She left with a smile. She saw the cat on the porch. My friend and I decided to take a walk this morning. He will meet me here at 4 o'clock. Beth cried because of her dog's dying. The dog barked all night while I was trying to sleep. The boy laughed loudly.

ANSWERS

1. My friend works at the grocery store. - prepositional phrase that answers the question where? 2. We went to the pool to swim. - "to the pool" is a prepositional phrase that answers the question where? - "to swim" is an infinitive that answers the question why? 3. I went to sleep after midnight. - prepositional phrase that answers the question when? 4. Jack went outside for some fresh air. - "outside" is an adverb that answers the question where? - "for some fresh air" is a prepositional phrase that answers the question why? (Pattern VI) 5. After the show, we went skating. - "after the show" is a subordinate clause that answers the question when? - "skating" is a participle that answers the question where? (Pattern VI) 6. She left with a smile. - prepositional phrase that answers the question how? (Pattern VI)

7. She saw the cat on the porch. - "on the porch" is a prepositional phrase that answers the question where? (Pattern VII) 8. My friend and I decided to take a walk this morning. - "this morning" is a noun phrase acting as an adverbial; it answers the question when? (Pattern VII) 9. He will meet me here at 4 o'clock. - "here" is an adverb that answers the question where? - "at 4 o'clock" is a prepositional phrase that answers the question when? (Pattern VII) 10. Beth cried because of her dog's dying. - prepositional phrase that answers the question why? (Pattern VI) 11. The dog barked all night while I was trying to sleep. - "all night" is a noun phrase acting as an adverbial; it answers the question when? - "while I was trying to sleep" is a subordinate clause that answers the question when? ( Pattern VI) 12. The boy laughed loudly. - adverb that answers the question how? (Pattern VI)