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E_English Grammar E_English Grammar Course Course Unit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials

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E_English Grammar CourseUnit 7 Lecture 7 - Adverbials

Issues1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Units realizing adverbial functions Classes of adverbials Adjuncts Disjuncts Conjuncts

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1 Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause

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1 Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause E.g.: I have never been there. Non-finite clause Verbless clause

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1 Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause E.g.: I saw her last week. Non-finite clause Verbless clause

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1 Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause E.g.: She sat in aclausecorner. Verbless dark

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1 Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbials Adverb phrases Finite clause

E.g.: When I came to the club, I saw James sitting alone Noun phrases Non-finite clause at the window table. Prepositional phrases Verbless clause

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1 Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases infinitiveHe plays to win.

Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless-ed participle clause -ing participleSeeing Tom, she smiles. Whenever left alone, he cried.

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1 Units realizing adverbial functionsRealization of adverbials Adverb phrases Noun phrases Prepositional phrases Finite clause Non-finite clause Verbless clause

E.g.: The baby was playing, unaware of the danger.

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2

Classes of AdverbialsADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS

ADVERBIALS

Integrated in clause structure Peripheral in clause structure

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Classes of AdverbialsADJUNCTS 1. cant appear initially in a negative

ADVERBIALS

declarative clause. DISJUNCTS E.g. Quickly, they didnt leave home.CONJUNCTS

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Classes of AdverbialsADJUNCTS 2. can be contrasted with another DISJUNCTS

ADVERBIALS

adverbial in an alternative interrogation (as focus of clause E.g. Does he write to his parents because he misses them, or only because he wants some money?

CONJUNCTS interrogation)

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2ADVERBIALS

Classes of AdverbialsADJUNCTS3. can be contrasted with another DISJUNCTS

adverbial in alternative negation (as focus of clause negation) his appearance, but because of his bad behavior.

E.g. We didnt hate him because of CONJUNCTS

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2ADVERBIALS

Classes of AdverbialsADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS

1. can appear initially before a negative clause in most cases E.g.: Naturally, he didnt come. Therefore, he couldnt come. (conjunct)

CONJUNCTS (adjunct)

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2ADVERBIALS

Classes of AdverbialsADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS CONJUNCTS

2. cannot be contrasted with another adverbial in alternative interrogation. 3. cannot be focus of clause negation

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2ADVERBIALS

Classes of AdverbialsADJUNCTS DISJUNCTS

Can serve as a response to a Y-N question. E.g.: A: Will he be there? B: Yes, probably.

CONJUNCTS

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Adjuncts

SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS

1.

Adjuncts can come within the scope of predication pro-form or predication ellipsis.

E.g.: John greatly admires Bob, and so does Mary. John greatly admires Bob, and Mary greatly admires Bob.

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Adjuncts

SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS

2.

Adjuncts can be the focus of limiter adverbials such as "only".

E.g.: They only want the car for an hour (for 3 hour not for longer).

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Adjuncts

SYNTACTIC FEATURES OF ADJUNCTS

3.

Adjuncts can be the focus of a cleft sentence.

E.g.: It was when he started speaking that I realized he was the man I met at the bar.

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Adjuncts

ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS

1. Can constitute a comparative construction E.g.: John speaks English more fluently than his brother does. 2. Have premodifying however E.g.: However strongly you feel about it, you should be cautious in the way you talk.

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Adjuncts

ADVERB PHRASES AS ADJUNCTS

3. Have premodifying how E.g.: How often does she wash her hair? How carelessly does he drive? 4. Have premodifying so (+ inversion) E.g.: So monotonously did he speak that everybody feel asleep.

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

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Adjunctsviewpoint+ = if we consider what we

focusing are saying from a [adj. phrase]TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

intensifier point of view process subject place time others+ usually in initial position E.g.: Geographically (speaking), Vietnam is a diverse country. Business wise, its not a good idea to open a fast food restaurant in this area.

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others limiters exclusivesalone, just, only, purely, simply

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

particularizeschiefly, especially, mainly, etc.

additivesalso, either, even, neither, nor, too, as well as, in addition

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others downtonerscompromisers diminishers minimizers approximators

emphasizersclearly, definitely, etc.

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

amplifiers

maximizers completely, etc. boosters by far, well, etc.

kind of, quite, etc. partly, slightly, etc. a bit, barely, etc. almost, nearly, etc.

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing+ = in that way/ that way + co-occur with dynamic verbs, not stative verbs + favor final conditions E.g.: They live frugally. Tear gas indiscriminatively sprayed on the protesters.

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

intensifier process subject place time others

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing mannerE.g.: They walked in single file.

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

intensifier process subject place time others

meansE.g.: I go to school by car.

instrumentE.g.: You can cut the apple with that knife.

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others generalWith great unease, they elected him as their leader.

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

volitionaldeliberately, intentionally, on purpose, willingly, with reluctance, etc.

formulaicplease, humbly, cordially, kindly, etc.

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Adjunctsviewpoint + denote position, direction, focusing intensifier process subject place time othersmovement, and passage + most are prepositional phrases; adverb phrases and noun phrases used frequently + used only with verbs of motions or other dynamic verbs denoting direction E.g.: Ill miss you downstairs. Were moving some furniture into the kitchen.

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time othersdirectionI take the book from the shelf. She ran past the church.

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

positionI live in a small village. He is over there.

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time othersfrequency other relationships when

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

duration

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time otherswhen + boundary of time duration E.g.: afterwards + point of time E.g.: today, tomorrow frequency other relationships

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others+ length of time frequency E.g.: briefly + from the preceding other relationships point in time E.g.: since when

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

duration

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time others+ indefinite - usual occurrence: E.g.: usually when - continuous/continual: E.g.: always - high: E.g.: often duration - low/zero: occasionally, never frequency + definite other relationships - period: E.g.: daily - number: E.g.: twice

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier process subject place time othersfrequency other relationships first, next, then, still, yet, already, etc. when

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

duration

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Adjunctsviewpoint focusing intensifier

TYPES OF ADJUNCTS

process or origin source place time

+ expressing purpose, cause, reason,

E.g.: He subject took the book from me. The symbolically buried the car as a protest against pollution.

others

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Adjuncts

RELATIVE POSITION OF ADJUNCTS 1. In final position: process place - time E.g. He was working with his shears (process) in the garden (place) the whole morning (time). 2. The normal relative order can be changed to suit the desire for end-focus. 3. A clause normally comes after other structures to avoid ambiguity E.g. We stood talking for a very long time (A1) where the fire has been (A2). 4. Longer adjuncts tend to follow shorter adjuncts. E.g. I was studying earlier (A1) in the university library (A2).

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4DISJUNCTS

Disjuncts

Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts

Most disjuncts are prepositional phrases or clause

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4DISJUNCTS

Disjuncts

Style disjuncts Attitudinal disjuncts

convey the speakers comment on the form of what he is saying, defining in some way under what conditions he is speaking E.g.: Seriously, do you intend to retire? Personally, I dont approve of her. Very frankly, I am tired.

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4DISJUNCTS

Disjuncts

Style disjuncts convey the speakers comment on the Attitudinal disjuncts content of what he is saying generally appear only on declarative clauses E.g.: Obviously, no one expected us. Understandably, they were all annoyed when reading the letter.

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5CONJUNCTS

Conjuncts1. Most conjuncts are adverb phrases or prepositional phrases. 2. The normal position for most conjuncts is initial. 3. Conjuncts often have a separate tone unit.

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Result Inferential

first, second, third; one, two, three; for one thing, Equative Reformulatory for another thing; for a start, to begin with, next, thenTransitional Summative Apposition Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Result Inferential Reformulatory

also, further more, moreover, in addition, above all, Transitional Replacive what is more, then (informal), etc.Summative Apposition Antithetic

Concessive Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential

equally, likewise, similarly, in the same way, etc.Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

Reformulatory

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory by the way, incidentally, etc. Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential

then, (all) in all, in conclusion, to sum up, etc.Replacive Antithetic Concessive

Reformulatory

Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Result Inferential Reformulatory

namely, in other words, for instance, Transitional that is, that is to say, for example, etc.ReplaciveSummative Apposition Antithetic

Concessive Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

consequently, hence, thus, so, therefore, as a result, etc.

Transitional Summative Apposition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

Transitional Summative Apposition

else, otherwise, then, in other words, in that case, etc.

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory

better, rather, in other words, etc.

Replacive Antithetic Concessive

Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Result Inferential

alternatively, rather, on the other hand, etc. ReformulatoryReplacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

Transitional Summative Apposition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory instead, then, on the contrary, in contrast, by comparison, on the other hand, etc. Replacive Antithetic Concessive Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Result Inferential

anyhow, EquativeTransitional Summative Apposition

anyway, besides, else, however,Reformulatory still

nevertheless, yet, in any case, at any rate, after all Replacive in spite of that, on the other hand, all the same, etc.Antithetic

Concessive Temporal transition

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ConjunctsCONJUNCTSEnumerative Reinforcing Equative Transitional Summative Apposition Result Inferential Reformulatory Replacive Antithetic meantime, meanwhile, in the mean time, etc. Concessive Temporal transition