verbs, tenses and adverbials
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VERBS, TENSES AND ADVERBIALSINTRODUCTION TO BASIC GRAMMAR LESSON 2
VERBSCAN BE DIVIDED INTO THE FOLLOWING TYPES TRANSITIVE , INTRANSITIVE AND DITRANSITIVE VERBS V1-PRESENT FORM OF VERB V2-PAST FORM OF VERB V3-PAST PARTICIPLE FORM OF VERB FINITE AND INFINITE VERBS MODALS AND MAIN VERBS
TRANSITIVE , INTRANSITIVE, AND DITRANSITIVE VERBSTRANSITIVE VERBS: verbs that takes an object after it. e.g. The player kicked the ball. INTRANSITIVE VERBS: verbs that do not take an object after it. e.g. The child is sleeping. DITRANSITIVE VERBS: verbs that take two objects. e.g. John gave a book to Mary. DEFECTIVE VERBS: verbs( both transitive and intransitive) that suffer from a serious defect. They cannot be used in all tenses and moods as most other verbs can be. e.g. will two tenses present/ past, no future tense. other defective verbs shall, may, can, ought, must, need, dare, will INCOMPLETE VERBS: verbs that need some word/words to complete its predicate. e.g. They elected him king. (transitive) The dog became mad. (intransitive)
CONJUGATION OF VERBS V1,V2, V3 FORM OF VERBSTHE PRINCIPAL (CHIEF) PARTS OF A VERB, FROM WHICH ALL OTHER FORMS CAN BE OBTAINED ARE (1) THE PRESENT TENSE (2) THE PAST TENSE (3) THE PAST PARTICIPLE. VERBS ARE DIVIDED INTO STRONG AND WEAK VERBS, ACCORDING TO THE WAY IN WHICH THEY FORM THEIR PAST TENSE AND PAST PARTCIPLE. (1) STRONG VERBS: FORM THEIR PAST TENSE BY VOWEL CHANGES IN THE BODY OF THE WORD WITHOUT ADDING ANY SUFFIX. e.g. Go, went, gone; rise, rose, risen (2) WEAK VERBS: FORM THEIR PAST TENSE AND PAST PARTICIPLE BY ADDING D,-T, OR ED TO THE PRESENT WITH/ WITHOUT VOWEL CHANGE IN THE BODY OF THE WORD. e.g. love, loved, love; speed, sped, sped; think, thought, thought.
VERB CONJUGATIONSPRESENT (V1) ABIDE DRAW GO DRINK BLEED CATCH SLEEP KNEEL HURT COST THRIVE WIND TREAD PAST (V2) ABODE DREW WENT DRANK BLED CAUGHT SLEPT KNELT HURT COST THROVE WOUND TROD PAST PARTICIPLE (V3) ABODE DRAWN GONE DRUNK/ DRUNKEN BLED CAUGHT SLEPT KNELT HURT COST THRIVEN WOUND TRODDEN STRONG/WEAK VERB STRONG STRONG STRONG STRONG WEAK WEAK WEAK WEAK WEAK WEAK STRONG STRONG STRONG
PARTICIPLE FORM OF VERBVERB -- ADJECTIVE HEARING THE ROAR, THE SOLDIER RUSHED OUT.Verb acting as an adjective
THE OLD FARMER LAY ON HIS DYING BED. THE FADED FLOWERS WERE THROWN AWAY.
A participle is so called because it is partly a verb and partly an adjective.Present Participle always used in active voice, ends in inge.g. I can hear her singing a song.
Past Participle denotes an action or state which is completed, and hence is no longer inprogress. Used in passive voice, ends in en, -n, -ed, -d,-t. e.g. We saw the trees laden with apples. Blinded by lightning, she fell senseless.
Finite and Infinite Verbs(a) They always speak the truth. (b) They always try to speak the truth. In (a) verb speak, subject they Hence, verb speak is limited by number and person. It is therefore, a finite verb. In (b) verb- try, subject they to speak has no subject and hence it is not limited by number and person. It simply names the action denoted by the verb. It is called the Infinitive.
It is known as a VERB-NOUN.
Infinite Verbs-some more examples(a) (b) (c) (d) Peacocks love to dance. To err is human. To respect our parents is our duty. Many boys desire to win prizes.
In (a) infinitive to dance like a noun is the object of the verb love. In (b) infinitive to err like a noun is the subject of the verb is. In (c) infinitive to respect like a noun is the subject of the verb is, but like a verb it also takes an object- our parents. In (d) infinitive to win like a noun is the object of the verb desire, but like a verb it also takes an object-prizes. AN INFINITIVE DOES THE WORK OF A NOUN FOR IT CAN BE THE SUBJECT OF A VERB AND THE OBJECT OF A TRANSITIVE VERB.
MODALS A Modal is an auxiliary verb used to express the mood of another verb, or the mode of action denoted by the main verb. Modals include the auxiliary verbs: shall, will, should, would, can could, may, might, must, ought, need, dare.
USE OF MODALSMODALSHALL
USESSimple future action (in 1st person) Denotes a promise, command, threat, determination, compulsion (in 2nd/3rd person) Past from of shall, expresses suggestion In 1st person determination, promise, threat, wish, willingness In 2nd /3rd person simple futurity without any reference to the wish of the agent. To express refusal, past habit, determination, willingness, in polite speeches, condition or uncertainty
EXAMPLESI shall send you an e-mail. You shall have a holiday tomorrow.(promise) Thou shalt not steal.(command) If you do this, you shall be dismissed.(threat) You shall come to school at ten.(compulsion) He said that you should come on time.
We will not submit. (determination) I will behave better next time. (promise) I will dismiss you if you come late again. (threat) I will visit the Taj. ( wish) He will win the first prize. (2nd person) She wouldn t answer my question.(refusal) After lunch he would generally have a short nap. (past habit) He would not lie under any circumstance. ( determination) Would you please lend me your book? (polite speech) Had she met me, I would have told her everything.(condition)
Would (past form of will)
USE OF MODALSMODALSMay (present), might (past)
USESExpress permission, possibility, in questions, request, wish, purpose.
EXAMPLESMay I borrow your pen? (permission) It may rain tomorrow. ( possibility) May I trouble you to pass the salt? (question) You might make a little less noise. (request) May you have a happy and long life.( wish) We eat that we may live. (purpose) I could complete the work. You can go now. You must complete the work by 22nd December. I must have my money back. A judge must be upright. He must be up by this time. We must all die. You ought to join the duty tomorrow. Everybody ought to love his country. You need not come tonight. I need to work harder. She dares to face the situation. He dare not take such a foolish step. He s used to hard manual labour. He used to come to our office regularly.
Can, could Must
Express power or ability, permission Compulsion/moral obligation Fixed determination Duty Certainty or strong likelihood Inevitably Obligation Desirability Absence of obligation Requirement Challenge Venture (have courage) Be accustomed to Past habit
TENSESPresent tenseSimple present tense
UseHabitual action, Likes, preferences, universal truths a situation/fact that is permanent future action, when the futurity is indicated by the context An action happening now Planned future action An action that has just been completed. A past action the result of which still continue
ExampleHe gets up early in the morning. I like to watch movies/ I prefer tea to coffee./ Rain falls from the clouds Delhi stands on the Yamuna. (not is standing) School starts again on January 2nd.
Present Continuous tense (be+ Pr participle) (V+ing) Present Perfect
He is listening to the radio. I am working very hard to get a good grade. I am leaving for New Delhi tonight. The train has just arrived. I have lived in Mumbai for ten years. We have known each other for the past ten years.
Present Perfect Continuous
An action that began in the past is continuing up to the present time
I have been working for two hours. I have been reading this book since January last. (N.B.-- for period of time, since point of time)
ExampleHe submitted the report last week. She lived in New Delhi for three years. She always kept a diary. The Hindu widows burnt(=used to burn) themselves with their husbands. What was she doing when you called on her? The train had left before they reached the station The ship had sunk before help could reach her. The rain had stopped when she arrived. I shall do it now. She will be singing then. I shall have done my work before you come. You will have met your mother before I see you again.
Simple Past Tense An action completed in the past at a definite time An action that occupied a period of time. Express a past habit(habitual action) Past continuous Past Perfect (had+past participle) An action going on in the past time referred to An action which had been completed at some point in the past time before another action was commenced An action that is about to take place Denotes an action going on at some point in future time Denotes that an action will be completed at some point of time in the future.
Simple future Future continuous Future Perfect
SOME ERRORS IN THE USE OF TENSESIncorrect: I did not write the letter yet. I did not hear from her for a month. I lived in Madras since 1962. Correct: I have not written the letter yet. I have not heard from her for a month. I have lived in Madras since 1962. Reason: The Simple Past is often wrongly used for the Present Perfect Tense
Columbus has discovered America. The Mughals have won the battle of Panipat. The servant has not come when called. Correct: Columbus discovered America. The Mughals won the battle of Panipat. The servant did not come when called. Reason: The Present Perfect is often wrongly used for the Simple Past.
I have written a letter to him yesterday. A new theatre has been started last Tuesday. I have finished my work last evening. A moment ago I have heard strange news. Correct: I wrote a letter to him yesterday. A new theatre was started last Tuesday. I finished my work last evening. A moment ago I heard strange news. Reason: the present perfect since it denotes present time, cannot be connected with an adverb or any word that expresses past time generally or a definite point of past time. Incorrect: I had written a letter to her yesterday. He had gone to Mumbai last week. Correct: I wrote a letter to her yesterday. He went to Mumbai last week. Reason: The Past Perfect is often used wrongly for the Simple Past.
Incorrect: Correct: Reason: Incorrect:
The train left before we reached the station. The patient died before the doctor arrived. The train had left before we reached the station. the patient had died before the doctor arrived. The simple past is often wrongly used for the past perfect.
He told me that she was ill for six days. she was fasting for six weeks when the doctor came. Correct: He told me that she had been ill for six days. She had been fasting for six weeks when the doctor came. Reason: the past perfect/perfect cont , and not the simple past/ past cont, is used to express something that continued up to a past time after beginning at a still earlier time. Incorrect: He will reach home before the sun will set. I shall leave this place by the time she will come. Correct: He will have reached home before the sun will set. I shall have left this place by the time she comes. Reason: Simple future is often used wrongly for the future perfect.
ADVERBS it qualifies a verb, an adjective, or other adverbThere are three different kinds of adverbs: Simple Adverbs Interrogative Adverbs Relative Adverbs
Type of Adverb Simple Adverb
Sub-divisionAdverbs of Manner Adverbs of Place Adverbs of time Adverbs of Number Adverbs of Degree/ Quantity Adverbs of Reason Adverbs of Affirmation/Negation He fought bravely.
ExampleThere is air everywhere. There is no sun today. He is always late. The mango is almost ripe. He was therefore fined. He is certainly alive. He did not come after all. How did he manage this? Where does he live? When will she come? How much did she pay? This is the place where the prince lived (antecedent expressed). This is where(= the place in which) the prince lived. (antecedent omitted)
How(manner), where(place), when(time), how many(number), how far (quantity/degree), why (reason) Adverbs which not only modify some word in the clause but also connect the clause in which they occur with the rest of the sentence.
Adverbs Wrongly PlacedAdverbs most likely to be put at the wrong place are : only, even, rarely, almost, nearly, scarcely, hardly. Shifting of ONLY
Only Hari has been granted leave for two days. Hari has been granted leave for only two days. Shifting of Even
Hari did not answer even my letter. Even Hari did not answer my letter. Rarely avoid using ever after rarely .
I rarely ever see you these days. (X) I rarely see you these days.(v)
Almost, Nearly convey the same meaning and can replace each other except when almost occurs with no, none, nothing or never in a sentence. He slipped and almost fell. He slipped and nearly fell. But in the following sentences almost cannot be replaced by nearly. The speaker said almost nothing worth listening to.(correct) The speaker said scarcely anything worth listening to.(correct) Scarcely, Hardly both these adverbs are negative. Hence, to avoid a double negative we should not use another negative in sentences in which they occur. Salim is illiterate, he scarcely cannot write his name. Salim is illiterate, he can scarcely write his name.
His handwriting is so bad that I hardly cannot read it. His handwriting is so bad that I can hardly read it.
FORMATION OF ADVERBS1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. By adding ly to adjectives: active- actively By prefixing a to nouns: By prefixing a to adjectives: By prefixing a to verbs: a+ back= aback, a+ blaze= ablaze a+ broad= abroad, a+ fresh= afresh a+do= ado, a+cross= across
By prefixing be or ab to certain words: be+ fore=before, ab+out= about By adding wards to certain words: Miscellaneous: back+wards= backwards bad ill, badly
SPECIAL USE OF SOME ADVERBSTooVery Fairly excess of some kind muchmeans moderately, but fairly is chiefly used with favourable adjectives and adverbs means moderately, but rather is chiefly used with unfavourable adjectives and adverbs.
It is too hot to go outside It is very hot today. Ashoka is fairly clever, but his brother is rather stupid. This book is rather heavy, but that one is fairly light.
qualifies adjectives/ adverbs in He is much better today. the comparative degree; I was much surprised to learn this. before past participle qualifies adjectives/ adverbs in He came very slowly. the positive degree; This news is very annoying. Before present participle means formerly from the present time dating backwards He did that once before. My father died three years ago(=from now)
DOUBLE ADVERBSSome adverbs have two forms and both of them are used in different senses
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Free without any cost Hard very much Late after the fixed time Near close by Very in a big degree Direct straight
freely independently hardly rarely lately recently nearly approximately verily really directly at once
COMMON ADVERB PHRASES1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. Again and again repeatedly Before long soon By and by in due course. Now and then occasionally In the long run at long last Far and near from all directions Far and wide to far-off places Far and away beyond all comparison First and foremost the very first. Here and now on this very spot There and then on that very spot Off and on at times Out and out at times Through and through thoroughly To and fro- backwards and forwards Over and above in addition to Without fail-- surely
Common errors in the use of Adverbs1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. He is working hardly these days. He is working hard these days. I am too pleased to see you here. I am very pleased to see you here. She comes to see me seldom. She seldom comes to see me. It is nothing else than a folly. It is nothing else but a folly. He was lying senselessly. He was lying senseless. He is very clever to be taken in by you. He is too clever to be taken in by you. I shall be very obliged to you. I shall be much obliged to you. He is somewhat tall for his age. He is rather tall for his age.