citoplasma seminar

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  • Cell structure

  • Ribosome

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum-set of interconnected membranes. Forms cisternae. 2 types:

    Rough ER - studded with ribosomes that are attached to cytosolic side of rER

    Smooth ER- no ribosomes

    *Ribosomes formed in nucleolus*

  • The Endoplasmic Reticulum

  • Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) - system of tubes and sacs formed by membranesRough = modifies proteins produced on the ribosomes. Synthesis of proteins for export from the cell, integral proteins of cell membrane, enzymes of lysosomesSmooth = functions in lipid synthesis (including steroids), carbohydrate synthesis and metabolism, drug detoxification, and calcium storage in muscle cells

  • 0.5 micrometerssmooth endoplasmic reticulumvesiclesribosomesrough endoplasmic reticulum0.5 micrometers

  • Figure 3.9 The Golgi Apparatus

  • Functions of the Golgi Apparatus

  • Mitochondrion

  • Mitochondria

  • LysosomesMembrane bound vessels that pinch off from Golgi apparatusContain digestive enzymesPerform clean up and duties

  • Lysosomes

  • LysosomeFrom Krogh, Biology: A Guide to the Natural World, 2nd edition

  • nucleus

  • CytoskeletonMajor components:Microtubules (composed of tubulin subunits)Microfilaments (mostly actin and myosin)Intermediate filamentsFunctions: support & movement of cellular structures & materials

  • Cytoskeleton

  • 2 centrioles direct formation of mitotic spindleIn 9+0 array

  • CiliaCell surface projectionsCapable of movementMoves materials over the cell surfaceSensory capabilities

  • Centrioles and Cilia

  • MicrovilliExtension of plasma membraneIncrease the cell surfaceNormally many on each cellForm a brush border on the apical surface of the cellDo not move

  • Figure: 04-07

    Title:Endoplasmic reticulum.

    Caption:There are two types of endoplasmic reticulum: rough ER, coated with ribosomes, and smooth ER, without ribosomes. Although in electron micrographs the ER looks like a series of tubes and sacs, it is actually a maze of folded sheets and interlocking channels.