Chapter: Air Pollution Table of Contents Section 3: Solutions to Air PollutionSolutions to Air Pollution Section 1: Types and Causes of Air Pollution.

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  • Chapter: Air PollutionTable of ContentsSection 3: Solutions to Air PollutionSection 1: Types and Causes of Air PollutionSection 2: Effects of Air Pollution

  • Pollutants are harmful substances that contaminate the environment. Air pollution comes from human activities as well as natural events. Pollutants released directly into the air in a harmful form are called primary pollutants. What causes air pollution?Types and Causes of Air Pollution1Pollutants that are not released directly into the air but form in the atmosphere are called secondary pollutants.

  • Smog near cities is called photochemical smog because it forms with the help of sunlight. Photochemical smog forms when vehicles, some industries, and power plants release nitrogen compounds and organic compounds into the air. SmogTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • These substances react to form the nitrogen dioxide. The nitrogen dioxide then can react in the presence of sunlight to eventually form ozone, a secondary pollutant. SmogTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • Nature can affect the formation of smog. In many cities, smog is not a problem because winds disperse the pollutants that cause smog to form. Nature and SmogTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1In some locations, however, landforms can add to smog development. Surrounding mountains trap air in the Los Angeles region, preventing pollutants from being dispersed quickly.

  • Normally, temperatures in Earths lower atmosphere are warmest near Earths surface. Temperature InversionsTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • During an inversion, warm air overlies cool air, trapping the cool air near Earths surface. Temperature InversionsTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • Temperature InversionsTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1A temperature inversion reduces the amount of mixing in the atmosphere and can cause pollutants to accumulate near Earths surface.

  • The pH scale indicates how acidic or how basic a substance is. Acid RainTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1Substances with a pH lower than 7 are acids. Acid rain is precipitation with a pH below 5.6. When rain is acidic, the pH of lakes and streams may decrease.

  • When fuels are burned, they release primary pollutants, such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides, into the air. Acid Rain SourcesTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1These compounds rise into the atmosphere and combine with moisture in the air to form the secondary pollutants sulfuric and nitric acids.

  • Precipitation in the northeastern United States is more acidic than in other areas. The Northeastern United StatesTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • The Northeastern United StatesTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • The resulting acids that form in the atmosphere eventually return to Earth as acid rain. The Northeastern United StatesTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1Many lakes in the northeastern United States have few fish due to acid rain.

  • Air contains suspended solid particles and liquid droplets called particulate matter. Particulate PollutionTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1Some particles enter the air directly and are therefore primary pollutants.

  • Particulate PollutionTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1Other particles can form from gases such as nitrogen or sulfur oxides as they combine with water in the air.

  • Coarse particulate matter is carried in the wind from dusty, unpaved roads, construction sites, and land that has been cleared. Coarse and Fine ParticulatesTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1The individual size of each particle is only about one-seventh the diameter of a human hair.

  • Fine particulate matter is much smaller than coarse particulate matteronly about one-forth the size of coarse particulates. Coarse and Fine ParticulatesTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1Particulate matter can damage plants and buildings and harm your lungs.

  • Toxic Pollutants and Carbon MonoxideTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1Most of the toxic air pollution is released by human activities.Toxic air pollutants cause or might cause cancer or other serious human health problems. Toxic pollutants also can damage other organisms.

  • When fossil fuels are not completely burned, a gas called carbon monoxide forms. Types and Causes of Air Pollution1Concentrations of carbon monoxide increase when cars are stopped in traffic. Carbon monoxide is poisonous at high concentrations. Toxic Pollutants and Carbon Monoxide

  • Since their discovery in 1928, people have been using chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (KLOR uh floor oh kar buhns), or CFCs, in air conditioners, refrigerators, and aerosol sprays. ChlorofluorocarbonsTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1In 1974, scientists F. Sherwood Rowland and Mario Molina theorized that these compounds could end up high in Earths atmosphere and damage Earths ozone layer.

  • About 20 km above Earth is the ozone layer. Ozone DepletionTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1Ozone is a molecule made of three oxygen atoms, just like the ozone in smog. Unlike smog, the ozone that exists at high altitudes helps Earths organisms by absorbing some of the Suns harmful rays.

  • One chlorine atom can destroy nearly 100,000 molecules of ozone. If too many ozone molecules are destroyed, harmful radiation from the Sun could reach Earth. Ozone DepletionTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • Ozone DepletionTypes and Causes of Air Pollution1

  • Section Check1Question 1Which is NOT a primary pollutant?A. ash and toxic gases from volcanoesB. smoke from a smokestackC. smogD. soot from trucksIN: 6.3.8, 6.3.13

  • 1Section CheckAnswerThe correct answer is C. Smog is a secondary pollutant. Secondary pollutants are not released directly into the air but form in the atmosphere.IN: 6.3.8, 6.3.13

  • 1Section CheckQuestion 2Explain the relationship between nature and smog.IN: 6.3.13

  • 1Section CheckAnswerSmog is usually dispersed by wind; however, landforms can affect smog formation and dispersal. Mountains can trap air in basins and prevent pollutants from being dispersed quickly. When this trapped air combines with sunny, hot weather conditions, thick blankets of smog can develop.IN: 6.3.13

  • 1Section CheckQuestion 3Why does the average pH of precipitation vary across the United States? IN: 6.3.8

  • 1Section CheckAnswerPrecipitation is more acidic in the northeastern United States because sulfur dioxides and nitrogen oxides are released from power plants and are carried by upper-level winds blowing from a generally westerly direction. The resulting acids that form in the atmosphere fall back to Earth in the form of acid rain. IN: 6.3.8

  • Air Pollution and Your HealthHealth effects depend on how long you are exposed to the pollutant and how much of the pollutant is in the air. Effects of Air Pollution2

  • Air Pollution and Your HealthYoung children and elderly people suffer the most effects of pollution. Effects of Air Pollution2When a child is young, all of his or her organs, including the brain, still are developing. Air pollution can affect the development of growing organs.Elderly people are at risk because they have been exposed to pollutants for a long time.

  • Smog and Carbon MonoxideLong-term exposure to smog can increase your risk for lung infections, reduce your ability to breathe normally, and might make asthma worse. Effects of Air Pollution2Carbon monoxide affects your bloods ability to carry oxygen. High concentrations of this gas might affect your vision, your ability to concentrate, and your coordination. Very high levels can cause death.

  • Effects of Particulates and Toxic PollutantsSmall particles can penetrate deep into your lungs and cause part of the lungs to become inflamed. Effects of Air Pollution2

  • Effects of Particulates and Toxic PollutantsToxic substances in the air can damage many body systems. Effects of Air Pollution2People exposed to toxic air pollutants can suffer from nerve damage, respiratory problems, and disorders of the reproductive system. They also can have an increased risk for cancer.

  • Inhaling AcidWhen you inhale humid air from acid rain, acid can be deposited deep inside your lungs. Effects of Air Pollution2Acid irritates the lungs sensitive tissues and reduces your ability to fight respiratory infections. Damaged lungs cannot transfer oxygen to the blood easily, so the heart must work harder to pump oxygen to body cells.

  • Increased Ultraviolet RadiationHarmful rays from the Sun, called ultraviolet radiation, are blocked partially by the protective ozone layer. Effects of Air Pollution2Each spring, an ozone hole forms over Antarctica. The hole is an area of the ozone layer that is thinning.

  • Increased Ultraviolet RadiationIn humans, increased ultraviolet radiation is linked to skin cancer. Effects of Air Pollution2

  • Increased Ultraviolet RadiationIn addition to skin cancer, cataracts are more common in people who are exposed to high amounts of ultraviolet radiation. Effects of Air Pollution2Cataracts are a form of eye damage that makes the lens of the eye cloudy.

  • Effects on Earths OrganismsBecause air pollutants fall to Earth in rain or snow, animals are exposed when they ingest pollutants in their food and water. Effects of Air Pollution2Soft-bodied animals such as earthworms, or animals with thin, moist skin, such as amphibians, can absorb air pollutants directly through their skin.

  • Effects on Earths OrganismsWhether or not an animal will be affected by a pollutant depends on the kind of pollutant, the length of time the animal is exposed to the pollutant, and the amount of pollutant taken into the animals body. Effects of Air Pollution2

  • Concentrating PollutantsSome pollutants stay in animal tissue instead of being excreted from their bodies as waste. Effects of Air Pollution2When these animals are eaten by other animals, the pollutants are passed on to the predator.

  • Concentrating PollutantsEffects of Air Pollution2Biomagnification (BI oh mag nuh fuh KAY shun) is the process in which pollutant levels increase through the food chain.

  • Acidic Lakes and StreamsThe pH of some streams, lakes, and rivers can decrease when acid rain falls. Effects of Air Pollution2In some streams and lakes in the United States and Canada, acid rain has eliminated certain fish species, such as brook trout.

  • Acidic Lakes and StreamsAcid rain is an even greater problem when snow melts. Effects of Air Pollution2If a large amount of acidic snow falls in the winter and melts quickly in the spring, a sudden rush of acids flows into lakes and streams. Many fish and other organisms have been killed because of sudden pH changes.

  • Acidic Lakes and StreamsAt higher elevations, trees often are surrounded by fog. Effects of Air Pollution2When the fog is acidic, trees suffer injury and are less able to resist pests and diseases.

  • Acid Rain and SoilsAs acid rain moves through soil, it can strip away many of the nutrients that trees and other plants need to grow. Effects of Air Pollution2Some regions have naturally basic soils. In such regions, acid rain might not significantly affect vegetation.

  • SmogSmog affects the respiratory systems of animals. Effects of Air Pollution2When plants are exposed to smog over a long period of time, the pollutants break down the waxy coating on their leaves. This results in water loss through the leaves and increases the effects of diseases, pests, drought, and frost.

  • The Ozone LayerAs the ozone layer thins, Earths organisms are exposed to more ultraviolet radiation. Effects of Air Pollution2Phytoplankton (FI tuh PLANG tun) live in Earths freshwater and oceans. These organisms are the basis of the food chain.

  • The Ozone LayerUltraviolet radiation can reduce the ability of phytoplankton to make food, decreasing their numbers. Effects of Air Pollution2

  • The Ozone LayerUltraviolet radiation might affect many agricultural crops such as rice by decreasing the plants ability to fight diseases and pests. Effects of Air Pollution2Even small increases in ultraviolet radiation might reduce the amount of rice grown per square kilometer.With world population increasing, a crisis might occur if rice and other crop production is affected by ultraviolet radiation.

  • Damage to Materials and StructuresAcid rain is known to corrode metals and deteriorate stone and paint.Effects of Air Pollution2Smoke and soot coat buildings, paintings, and sculptures, requiring expensive cleaning.

  • Damage to Materials and StructuresEffects of Air Pollution2

  • Section Check2Question 1Which is a long-term health of effect of air pollution?A. coughB. kidney diseaseC. pneumoniaD. stinging, watery eyesIN: 6.3.13

  • Section Check2AnswerThe answer is B. Kidney disease is a long-term health of effect of air pollution. The other health effects are short-term. IN: 6.3.13

  • Section Check2Question 2What effect does acid rain have on lakes and on animals?AnswerIf acidic snow melts quickly in the spring, a sudden rush of acid flows into lakes and kills fish and other organisms. IN: 6.3.8

  • Section Check2Question 3How can an increase in ultraviolet radiation affect these fish? IN: 6.4.8

  • Section Check2AnswerPhytoplankton are the small organisms floating in the water. They are the basis of the food chain. Increased exposure to ultraviolet radiation can affect the ability of phytoplankton to produce food. As their numbers decrease, there is less food available to the other fish and their numbers will eventually decrease as well. IN: 6.4.8

  • Clean Air LawsBeginning in 1955, the U.S. Congress passed a series of laws to help protect the air you breathe. A summary of these laws is listed in the table. Solutions to Air Pollution3

  • Clean Air LawsSolutions to Air Pollution3

  • Ambient AirThe surrounding air you breathe is called ambient (AM bee unt) air. Solutions to Air Pollution3Air pollution laws are written to help keep ambient air clean, no matter what the source of pollution is. Scientists sample and test ambient air for particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, lead, and ozone. These pollutants cannot exceed a certain level, called an air quality standard.

  • Controlling the SourcePollutants released into the air from a particular source are called emissions (ee MIH shunz). Solutions to Air Pollution3

  • Controlling the SourceSolutions to Air Pollution3Emissions can be controlled in two ways by using devices that capture pollutants already created and by limiting the amount of pollutants produced in the first place.

  • Controlling the SourceSince 1975, each new car sold in the United States has been equipped with a catalytic (ka tuh LIH tihk) converter, a device that changes harmful gases in car exhaust to less harmful ones. Solutions to Air Pollution3Since the 1990 Clean Air Act was enacted, only clean-burning gasoline can sold in the smoggiest areas of the country.

  • You Can HelpWhen you reduce the amount of electricity you use, less fuel is burned at a power plant, and less pollution is released. Solutions to Air Pollution3Turn down the thermostat in the winter and wear layers of clothing. Open windows in the summer instead of using air conditioning. Riding a...


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