OUTDOOR & INDOOR AIR POLLUTION. Outdoor Air Pollution

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> OUTDOOR &amp; INDOOR AIR POLLUTION </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Outdoor Air Pollution </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Primary Pollutants Secondary Pollutants Sources Natural Stationary CO CO 2 SO 2 NO NO 2 Most hydrocarbons Most suspended particles SO 3 HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 H2O2H2O2H2O2H2O2 O3O3O3O3PANs Most andsalts NO 3 Mobile SO 4 2 </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> 1.All of the following are primary pollutants except A.) sulfur dioxide B.) carbon dioxide C.) tropospheric ozone D.) nitrogen oxide E.) particulate matter </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> 2.All of the following countries have ratified the Kyoto Protocol except A.) United States B.) Japan C.) England D.) Canada E.) France </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Primary vs. Secondary Pollutants Primary- put directly into air from polluting source. Secondary- when primary combines with other substances in air and creates something more hazardous (acid rain, smog) Sun often provides energy for these rxns. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Major Sources of Primary Pollutants Stationary Sources Combustion of fuels for power and heat Power Plants Other burning such as wood &amp; crop burning or forest fires Industrial/ commercial processes Solvents and aerosols Mobile Sources Highway: cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles Off-highway: aircraft, boats, locomotives, farm equipment, RVs, construction machinery, and lawn mowers </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Natural Sources Forest fires- ash, particulates, carbon dioxide Volcanoes- ash, acid mist, hydrogen sulfide Decaying vegetation- sulfur cmpds Trees &amp; bushes- Volatile Organic Cmpds (VOCs) give Blue Ridge Mtns. their blue hue Pollen Spores Viruses Bacteria Dust- from storms in arid regions Gut bacteria- methane gas </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> 3.Volcanoes, fossil fuel combustion, and fires contribute to pollution in the form of A.) synthetic compounds B.) DDT C.) EMFs D.) sodium chloride E.) particulates </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Anthropogenic Sources of Air Pollution </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Criteria Air Pollutants EPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality 1.Sulfur Dioxide: SO 2 2.Nitrogen Dioxide: NO 2 3.Carbon monoxide: CO 4.Lead: Pb 5.Particulate Matter: PM 10 (PM 2.5) 6.Ozone: ground level O 3 </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Properties: colorless gas with irritating odor Effects: produces acid rain (H 2 SO 4 ), breathing difficulties, eutrophication due to sulfate formation, lichen and moss are indicators Sources: burning high sulfur coal or oil in power plants, smelting or metals, paper manufacture Class: sulfur oxides EPA Standard: 0.3 ppm (annual mean) 2 nd largest cause of air pollution-related health damage. (1 st is smoking) Sulfate particles reduce visibility in the U.S. as much as 80% Reflects sunlight so may have cooling effect </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Sulfur Dioxide Emissions See figure 18.5 on page 400 </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> 4.The greatest amount of sulfur dioxide emission comes from A.) on road vehicles B.) biofuels C.) industrial processes D.) electricity generation E.) fires </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Properties: reddish brown gas, formed as fuel burned in car, strong oxidizing agent, forms Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) in air Effects: acid rain, lung and heart problems, decreased visibility (yellow haze), suppresses plant growth Sources: fossil fuels combustion, power plants, forest fires, volcanoes, bacteria in soil, fertilizers Class: Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) EPA Standard: 0.053 ppm Excess nitrogen is causing fertilization &amp; eutrophication of inland waters &amp; seas </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Mobile Source Emissions: Nitrogen Oxides </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Carbon Monoxide (CO) Properties: colorless, odorless, heavier than air, 0.0036% of atmosphere Effects: binds tighter to Hemoglobin (Hb) than O 2, so organs do not get O 2 needed, makes you sleepy, impairs mental functions and visual acuity, even at low levels Sources: incomplete combustion of fossil fuels 60 - 95% from auto exhaust Class: carbon oxides (CO 2, CO) EPA Standard: 9 ppm 1 billion tons enter atmosphere/year </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Mobile Source Emissions CO </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> 5.The largest source of nitrogen oxide emissions is from A.) on road vehicles B.) industry C.) electricity generation D.) biofuels E.) fires </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Lead (Pb) Properties: grayish metal Effects: accumulates in tissue; affects kidneys, liver and nervous system (children most susceptible); mental retardation; possible carcinogen; 20% of inner city kids have high levels Sources: particulates from fuel combustion, smelters, batteries Class: toxic or heavy metals EPA Standard: 1.5 ug/m 3 2 million tons enter atmosphere/year Mercury- neurotoxin from coal power plants Both mercury &amp; lead travel on air currents and fall into aquatic ecosystems causing bioaccumulation &amp; biomagnification in food webs. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Suspended Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Properties: particles suspended in air ( </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Mobile Source Emissions: Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 ) </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) Properties: organic compounds (hydrocarbons) that evaporate easily, usually aromatic Effects: eye and respiratory irritants; carcinogenic; liver, CNS, or kidney damage; damages plants; lowered visibility due to brown haze; global warming Sources: vehicles (largest source), evaporation of solvents or fossil fuels, aerosols, paint thinners, dry cleaning, wetlands, rice paddies, bacteria, plants (Figure 18.8) Class: HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants- cause cancer, birth defects, mutation, neutroxins) Methane Benzene Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), etc. Concentrations indoors up to 1000x outdoors 600 million tons of CFCs </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Ozone (O 3 ) Properties: colorless, unpleasant odor, major part of photochemical smog Effects: lung irritant, damages plants, rubber, fabric, eyes Sources: Created by sunlight acting on NO x and VOC, photocopiers, cars, industry, gas vapors, chemical solvents, incomplete fuel combustion products Class: photochemical oxidants Good ozone vs. bad ozone- good is in stratosphere and bad is at ground level (from cars) Figure 18.10 shows secondary production of urban smog by photochemical rxns in atmosphere </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Other Air Pollutants Carbon dioxide- natural source from photosynthesis &amp; respiration; human caused from fossil fuels &amp; deforestationCarbon dioxide- natural source from photosynthesis &amp; respiration; human caused from fossil fuels &amp; deforestation ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)- from refrigerants, aerosols, StyrofoamChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)- from refrigerants, aerosols, Styrofoam Formaldehyde- building materials &amp; household productsFormaldehyde- building materials &amp; household products Benzene- paintBenzene- paint Asbestos- car brakes, building materialsAsbestos- car brakes, building materials Dioxins- pesticidesDioxins- pesticides Cadmium- smelting, batteries, plastics industryCadmium- smelting, batteries, plastics industry </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Formation &amp; Intensity of Pollutant is influenced by Local climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature, humidity)Local climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature, humidity) Topography (hills and mountains)Topography (hills and mountains) Population densityPopulation density Amount of industryAmount of industry Fuels used by population and industry for heating, manufacturing, transportation, powerFuels used by population and industry for heating, manufacturing, transportation, power Weather: rain, snow,windWeather: rain, snow,wind Buildings (slow wind speed)Buildings (slow wind speed) Mass transit usedMass transit used </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Pollutants warm air cool air surface heated by sun warm air rises (incl. pollutants) cools off, mixes with air of equal density &amp; disperses cool air warm air (inversion layer) surface cools rapidly (night) a layer of warm air overlays surface polluted surface air rises but cannot disperse remains trapped Thermal Inversion - occur in valleys -pollutant effects are intensified when air cannot move upward due to cold upper air layer </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> ...when polluted air is stagnant (weather conditions, geographic location) Los Angeles, CA Smog Forms </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Solar radiation Ultraviolet radiation NO Nitric oxide P h o t o c h e m i c a l S m o g H 2 O Water NO 2 Nitrogen dioxide Hydrocarbons O 2 Molecular oxygen HNO 3 Nitric acid PANs Peroxyacyl nitrates Aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde) O 3 Ozone O Atomic oxygen Photochemical Smog </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> 6. A chemical that causes respiratory problems as well as damage to the environment and is a part of photochemical smog is A.) ozone B.) arsenic C.) chlorine D.) asbestos E.) methane </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> 7. Which organisms are most affected by air pollution because they obtain their nutrients from the air? A.) frogs B.) trees C.) lichens D.) birds E.) bacteria </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Urban Heat Islands Cities are generally 3-5C warmer than rural areas Caused by: Lack of vegetation to absorb heat Dark buildings &amp; roads trap heat Buildings create windbreaks Dust Dome- trapping of dirt &amp; particulates over city </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> INDOOR AIR POLLUTION </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 1.Cigarette smoke Deadliest indoor air pollutant Contain formaldehyde, carbon monoxide Causes lung cancer, emphysema Second hand smoke may be worse due to particulates that come from tip. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 2.Mold Moisture in vents, carpets Allergy symptoms, breathing problems, headache, fatigue </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 3.Carbon monoxide Malfunctioning furnace, gas appliances, cars Blood cannot carry oxygen Feel sleepy, nausea, dizzy, cause death. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 4.Radon Colorless, odorless, radioactive gas Comes from soil under basements Long term exposure can cause lung cancer Fix cracks in floor or walls to prevent influx of radon Install ventilation fan in basement to blow radon out. Zone 1 (purple) high levels of radon Zone 3 (yellow) low levels of radon </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 5.Asbestos Roofing, flooring, insulation, brakes OK unless disturbed or deteriorates Can cause asbestosis (scarring of lungs) and mesothelioma (type of lung cancer) Plaque build up (scarring) in lung w/asbestosis </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 6.Lead Old homes, toys, lead crystal dishes Causes behavior &amp; learning problems, slow growth, hearing problems, headaches </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 7.Formaldehyde Pressed wood, paneling, particle board, glue, deodorizers Respiratory irritation, fatigue, skin rash, known to cause cancer </li> <li> Slide 42 </li> <li> What are some sources of indoor air pollution? 8. VOCs Paradichlorobenzene- mothballs, insecticides PERC- dry cleaned clothes Benzene- paints, cigarettes Causes respiratory problems, headaches, loss of coordination, nausea, organ damage, cancer </li> <li> Slide 43 </li> <li> Effects of Air Pollution on 1. Human Health 2. Plant Health 3. Acid Deposition </li> <li> Slide 44 </li> <li> 1. Human Health Depends on intensity &amp; duration of exposure, age &amp; prior health status At-risk groups: young, old, or already suffering from respiratory/cardiovascular disease. Also, more active &amp; outside vs. sedentary inside lifestyle Most susceptible- LDC use smoky fires for cooking &amp; heating </li> <li> Slide 45 </li> <li> Exposure Time spent in various environments in US and less-developed countries </li> <li> Slide 46 </li> <li> How is it introduced to body? Inhalation Absorption thru skin Contamination of food &amp; water </li> <li> Slide 47 </li> <li> How does air pollution affect people? Chronic bronchitis- coughing, trouble breathing Asthma- not caused by air pollution, but aggravated by it. Emphysema- lungs lose elasticity, hard to breathe Lung Cancer- caused by cigarettes, car exhaust, particulates, asbestos, arsenic, radon </li> <li> Slide 48 </li> <li> How does air pollution affect people? Sick building syndrome- Buildings closed up to save energy- no circulation Effects of fumes intensified Symptoms: headache, eye or throat irritation, cough, itchy skin, dizziness, nausea, fatigue Feel better when you get fresh air outside. 20% of workers must be afflicted to be classified as SBS </li> <li> Slide 49 </li> <li> 2. Plant Health Two Methods of Damage Directly toxic Irritate cell membranes First few days- discoloration due to chlorosis (bleaching) of leaf Later- necrotic (dead) lesions develop leading to death Disruption of plant hormones Ethylene from fossil fuels, chemical plants is a major culprit Synergistic effects (when combined two are worse than each individually) unpredictable White pine seedlings exposed to low levels of O3 &amp; SO2 individually are fine. When combined cause death In alfalfa, O3 and SO2 together are less harmful than individually. Air pollutant effects on plants are sometimes confused with insect damage or other diseases. </li> <li> Slide 50 </li> <li> Necrotic lesions on lower surface of potato leaves Chlorosis and necrosis of white pine needles Necrosis of watermelon leaf </li> <li> Slide 51 </li> <li> 3. Acid Deposition </li> <li> Slide 52 </li> <li> Measuring Acid Rain Normal rain is slightly acidic and has a pH of about 5.0-5.6 Any rainfall with a pH value less than 5.0 is defined as acid rain As of the year 2000, the most acidic rain falling in the US has a pH of about 4.3. </li> <li> Slide 53 </li> <li> Two Forms Wet Refers to acid rain, fog, sleet, cloud vapor and snow. Dry Refers to acidic gases and particles. </li> <li> Slide 54 </li> <li> Increased Acidity Dry deposited gases and particles can also be washed from trees and other surfaces by rainstorms. The runoff water adds those acids to the acid rain, making the combination more acidic than the falling rain alone. </li> <li> Slide 55 </li> <li> Compounds Two main contributers to acid deposition: Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Nitrogen Oxides (NO x ) NO- nitric oxide (or nitrogen monoxide) NO 2 - nitrogen dioxide N 2 O- nitrous oxide 66% of all sulfur dioxides and 25% of all nitrogen oxides comes from coal or oil electric power plants. Most nitrogen oxides come from cars </li> <li> Slide 56 </li> <li> When gas pollutants e.g. sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide dissolve in rain water, various acids are formed. CO 2 + H 2 O H 2 CO 3 (carbonic acid) SO 2 + H 2 O H 2 SO 3 (sulfuric acid) NO 2 + H 2 O HNO 2 (nitrous acid) + HNO 3 (nitric acid) </li> <li> Slide 57 </li> <li> Acidic Precipitation Fossil...</li></ul>

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