outdoor & indoor air pollution. outdoor air pollution

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Post on 25-Dec-2015




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  • Outdoor Air Pollution
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  • Primary Pollutants Secondary Pollutants Sources Natural Stationary CO CO 2 SO 2 NO NO 2 Most hydrocarbons Most suspended particles SO 3 HNO 3 H 2 SO 4 H2O2H2O2H2O2H2O2 O3O3O3O3PANs Most andsalts NO 3 Mobile SO 4 2
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  • 1.All of the following are primary pollutants except A.) sulfur dioxide B.) carbon dioxide C.) tropospheric ozone D.) nitrogen oxide E.) particulate matter
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  • 2.All of the following countries have ratified the Kyoto Protocol except A.) United States B.) Japan C.) England D.) Canada E.) France
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  • Primary vs. Secondary Pollutants Primary- put directly into air from polluting source. Secondary- when primary combines with other substances in air and creates something more hazardous (acid rain, smog) Sun often provides energy for these rxns.
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  • Major Sources of Primary Pollutants Stationary Sources Combustion of fuels for power and heat Power Plants Other burning such as wood & crop burning or forest fires Industrial/ commercial processes Solvents and aerosols Mobile Sources Highway: cars, trucks, buses and motorcycles Off-highway: aircraft, boats, locomotives, farm equipment, RVs, construction machinery, and lawn mowers
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  • Natural Sources Forest fires- ash, particulates, carbon dioxide Volcanoes- ash, acid mist, hydrogen sulfide Decaying vegetation- sulfur cmpds Trees & bushes- Volatile Organic Cmpds (VOCs) give Blue Ridge Mtns. their blue hue Pollen Spores Viruses Bacteria Dust- from storms in arid regions Gut bacteria- methane gas
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  • 3.Volcanoes, fossil fuel combustion, and fires contribute to pollution in the form of A.) synthetic compounds B.) DDT C.) EMFs D.) sodium chloride E.) particulates
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  • Anthropogenic Sources of Air Pollution
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  • Criteria Air Pollutants EPA uses six "criteria pollutants" as indicators of air quality 1.Sulfur Dioxide: SO 2 2.Nitrogen Dioxide: NO 2 3.Carbon monoxide: CO 4.Lead: Pb 5.Particulate Matter: PM 10 (PM 2.5) 6.Ozone: ground level O 3
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  • Sulfur Dioxide (SO 2 ) Properties: colorless gas with irritating odor Effects: produces acid rain (H 2 SO 4 ), breathing difficulties, eutrophication due to sulfate formation, lichen and moss are indicators Sources: burning high sulfur coal or oil in power plants, smelting or metals, paper manufacture Class: sulfur oxides EPA Standard: 0.3 ppm (annual mean) 2 nd largest cause of air pollution-related health damage. (1 st is smoking) Sulfate particles reduce visibility in the U.S. as much as 80% Reflects sunlight so may have cooling effect
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  • Sulfur Dioxide Emissions See figure 18.5 on page 400
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  • 4.The greatest amount of sulfur dioxide emission comes from A.) on road vehicles B.) biofuels C.) industrial processes D.) electricity generation E.) fires
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  • Nitrogen Dioxide (NO 2 ) Properties: reddish brown gas, formed as fuel burned in car, strong oxidizing agent, forms Nitric acid (HNO 3 ) in air Effects: acid rain, lung and heart problems, decreased visibility (yellow haze), suppresses plant growth Sources: fossil fuels combustion, power plants, forest fires, volcanoes, bacteria in soil, fertilizers Class: Nitrogen oxides (NO x ) EPA Standard: 0.053 ppm Excess nitrogen is causing fertilization & eutrophication of inland waters & seas
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  • Mobile Source Emissions: Nitrogen Oxides
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  • Carbon Monoxide (CO) Properties: colorless, odorless, heavier than air, 0.0036% of atmosphere Effects: binds tighter to Hemoglobin (Hb) than O 2, so organs do not get O 2 needed, makes you sleepy, impairs mental functions and visual acuity, even at low levels Sources: incomplete combustion of fossil fuels 60 - 95% from auto exhaust Class: carbon oxides (CO 2, CO) EPA Standard: 9 ppm 1 billion tons enter atmosphere/year
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  • Mobile Source Emissions CO
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  • 5.The largest source of nitrogen oxide emissions is from A.) on road vehicles B.) industry C.) electricity generation D.) biofuels E.) fires
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  • Lead (Pb) Properties: grayish metal Effects: accumulates in tissue; affects kidneys, liver and nervous system (children most susceptible); mental retardation; possible carcinogen; 20% of inner city kids have high levels Sources: particulates from fuel combustion, smelters, batteries Class: toxic or heavy metals EPA Standard: 1.5 ug/m 3 2 million tons enter atmosphere/year Mercury- neurotoxin from coal power plants Both mercury & lead travel on air currents and fall into aquatic ecosystems causing bioaccumulation & biomagnification in food webs.
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  • Suspended Particulate Matter (PM 10 ) Properties: particles suspended in air (
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  • Mobile Source Emissions: Fine Particulate Matter (PM 2.5 )
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  • VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds) Properties: organic compounds (hydrocarbons) that evaporate easily, usually aromatic Effects: eye and respiratory irritants; carcinogenic; liver, CNS, or kidney damage; damages plants; lowered visibility due to brown haze; global warming Sources: vehicles (largest source), evaporation of solvents or fossil fuels, aerosols, paint thinners, dry cleaning, wetlands, rice paddies, bacteria, plants (Figure 18.8) Class: HAPs (Hazardous Air Pollutants- cause cancer, birth defects, mutation, neutroxins) Methane Benzene Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), etc. Concentrations indoors up to 1000x outdoors 600 million tons of CFCs
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  • Ozone (O 3 ) Properties: colorless, unpleasant odor, major part of photochemical smog Effects: lung irritant, damages plants, rubber, fabric, eyes Sources: Created by sunlight acting on NO x and VOC, photocopiers, cars, industry, gas vapors, chemical solvents, incomplete fuel combustion products Class: photochemical oxidants Good ozone vs. bad ozone- good is in stratosphere and bad is at ground level (from cars) Figure 18.10 shows secondary production of urban smog by photochemical rxns in atmosphere
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  • Other Air Pollutants Carbon dioxide- natural source from photosynthesis & respiration; human caused from fossil fuels & deforestationCarbon dioxide- natural source from photosynthesis & respiration; human caused from fossil fuels & deforestation ChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)- from refrigerants, aerosols, StyrofoamChloroFluoroCarbons (CFCs)- from refrigerants, aerosols, Styrofoam Formaldehyde- building materials & household productsFormaldehyde- building materials & household products Benzene- paintBenzene- paint Asbestos- car brakes, building materialsAsbestos- car brakes, building materials Dioxins- pesticidesDioxins- pesticides Cadmium- smelting, batteries, plastics industryCadmium- smelting, batteries, plastics industry
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  • Formation & Intensity of Pollutant is influenced by Local climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature, humidity)Local climate (inversions, air pressure, temperature, humidity) Topography (hills and mountains)Topography (hills and mountains) Population densityPopulation density Amount of industryAmount of industry Fuels used by population and industry for heating, manufacturing, transportation, powerFuels used by population and industry for heating, manufacturing, transportation, power Weather: rain, snow,windWeather: rain, snow,wind Buildings (slow wind speed)Buildings (slow wind speed) Mass transit usedMass transit used
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  • Pollutants warm air cool air surface heated by sun warm air rises (incl. pollutants) cools off, mixes with air of equal density & disperses cool air warm air (inversion layer) surface cools rapidly (night) a layer of warm air overlays surface polluted surface air rises but cannot disperse remains trapped Thermal Inversion - occur in valleys -pollutant effects are intensified when air cannot move upward due to cold upper air layer
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  • ...when polluted air is stagnant (weather conditions, geographic location) Los Angeles, CA Smog Forms
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  • Solar radiation Ultraviolet radiation NO Nitric oxide P h o t o c h e m i c a l S m o g H 2 O Water NO 2 Nitrogen dioxide Hydrocarbons O 2 Molecular oxygen HNO 3 Nitric acid PANs Peroxyacyl nitrates Aldehydes (e.g., formaldehyde) O 3 Ozone O Atomic oxygen Photochemical Smog
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  • 6. A chemical that causes respiratory problems as well as damage to the environment and is a part of photochemical smog is A.) ozone B.) arsenic C.) chlorine D.) asbestos E.) methane
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  • 7. Which organisms are most affected by air pollution because they obtain their nutrients from the air? A.) frogs B.) trees C.) lichens D.) birds E.) bacteria
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  • Urban Heat Islands Cities are generally 3-5C warmer than rural areas Caused by: Lack of vegetation to absorb heat Dark buildings & roads trap heat Buildings create windbreaks Dust Dome- trapping of dirt & particulates over city
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