chapter 1 od

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  • 1.

2. Organisational development (OD)

  • Organisational development is concerned with the diagnosis of organisational health & performance, & the ability of the organisation to adapt to change
  • It involves the application of organisational behaviour & the recognition of the social processes of the organisation

3. Major topics associated with organisational development 4. Organisation Development

  • Definition:-
  • Organisation development is an effort, planned,--- organisation-wide, and ----managed from the top, ----to increase organisation effectiveness and health through ----planned interventions in the organization's processes, using behavioural-science knowledge.
  • (Beckhard, 1969)

5. Characteristics of OD

  • OD focuses on culture and processes.
  • OD encourages collaboration between leaders and members in managing culture and processes.
  • OD focuses on task accomplishment
  • Participation and involvement in problem solving
  • Total system change

6. OD Assumptions

  • Higher performance is possible
  • Higher levels of human performance require well functioning human systems
  • Professional expertise is possible and necessary
  • Organisations must be adaptive

7. OD Values

  • 1. Humanistic Values :-
  • - focuses on importance of the individuals
  • -Respect the whole person
  • -Treat people with respect and dignity
  • -Assume that everyone has inherent worth
  • -View all people as having potential for growthand development


  • 2.Optimistic Values :-
  • - People are basically good
  • -Progress is possible
  • -Rationality, reason and goodwill are the tools for making progress.
  • 3.Democratic Values :-
  • -Importance of fair and equitable treatment to all
  • -The need for justice through the rule of law and due process

9. Assumptions & values underlying OD

  • Assumptions
  • Individuals
  • People want to grow, mature& have much to offer that is not being used @ work
  • ( people desire , seek & appreciate empowerment)
  • Values
  • . Individuals
  • OD aims to overcome obstacles to human growth enabling employees to contribute more to the Orgz
  • OD stresses open communication & treats employees with dignity & respect


  • Groups
  • Groups r critical to Orgz Success as they have powerful influence on individual behaviour
  • Complex role played in group requires skill development
  • Groups
  • Restricted feelings or non acceptanceby groups diminishes individual willingness to solve problems constructively
  • Acceptance, collaboration & involvement leads to expression of feelings & perception


  • Organisation
  • Excessive control Rules & policies r detrimental
  • Conflict can be functional if properly channelized
  • Individual & organizational goals can be compactable
  • Organisation
  • The way groups r linked influences their effectiveness
  • Change should start @ top & gradually introduced through the rest of the orgz
  • The group links the top & bottom of the organisation


  • Improvement in interpersonal competence
  • Development of increased understanding between and within working groups to reduce tensions
  • Development of better methods of conflict resolution

13. Evolution 14.

  • RobertTannenbaum has come up with new session called as Team Building in 1952 and 1953 at U.S Naval Ordnance test station at China Lake, California. According to Tannenbaum, the term vertically structured groups was used with groups dealing with Personal Topics( such as Interpersonal relationship, self analysis etc) and with organization topics( such as duties and responsibilities, policies and procedures etc). These sessions were conducted with all managers of a given organization.

15. Douglas McGregor

  • Beginning about 1957, Douglas McGregor, as a professor-consultant, working with Union Carbide was one of the first behavioral scientists to solve the complex problems. John Paul Jones, who had come up through industrial relations at Union Carbide in collaboration with McGregor and with the support of a corporate executive vice president and director, Birny Mason, established a small internal consulting group. This group used behavioral science knowledge tohelp line managers and their subordinated learn how to be more effective in groups.

16. Evolution

  • Kurt Lewin(1898 - 1947) is widely recognized as the founding father of OD, although he died before the concept became current in the mid-1950s. From Lewin came the ideas ofgroup dynamics , andaction researchwhich underpin the basic OD process as well as providing its collaborative consultant/client ethos. Institutionally, Lewin had been recuited to MIT.
  • Kurt Lewinplayed a key role in the evolution of organization development as it is known today.


  • As early asWorld War II , Lewin experimented with a collaborative change process (involving himself as consultant and a client group) based on a three-step process of planning, taking action, and measuring results. Lewin then participated in the beginnings of laboratory training, orT-groups , and, after his death in 1947, his close associates helped to develop survey-research methods at theUniversity of Michigan . These procedures became important parts of OD as developments in this field continued at theand in growing numbers of universities and private consulting firms across the country.