chapter - 1 - definitions and foundations of od
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OD CHPTER 1 Definitions and Foundations of OD1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 Definitions of OD Values, assumptions and beliefs of OD History of OD Foundations of OD
Definition by Michael E. McGill Organization Development is a conscious planned process of developing an organizations capabilities so that it can attain and sustain an optimum level of performance as measured by efficiency, effectiveness, and health. Operationally OD is a normative process of addressing the questions Where are we?, Where do we want to be? And How do we get from where we are to where we want to be? Members of the organization using a variety of techniques, often in collaboration with a behavioral science consultant undertake this process.
Definition by French and Bell OD is a long term effort led and supported by top management, to improve an organizations visioning, empowerment, learning, and problem solving process through an ongoing, collaborative management of organization culture- with special emphasis on the culture of intact work teams and other team configurations- utilizing the consultantfacilitator role and the theory and technology of applied behavioral science, including action research.
1. Long term effort: OD takes time not a quick-fix- it is a continuous improvement (change). 2. Led and supported by: By top management- to ensure commitment. 3. Visioning process: Members create a picture of the desired future in terms of products, services and expectations from each other. 4. Empowerment processes: Leadership behaviors that utilize fully the talents of members. 5. Learning processes: Interacting, listening and self examining processes that facilitate individual, team and organizational learning (as against defensive routines). 6. Problem solving processes: Developing new and creative organizational solutions. 7. Ongoing collaborative management of organizations culture: That is, managing values, attitudes, beliefs, assumptions, expectations, activities, interactions, norms, sentiments etc. through widespread participation. 8. Intact work teams and other team configurations: Teams are the basic building blocks of organizations. a) Intact teams- boss-subordinates and self directed teams. b) Other team configurations- task teams, project teams. Tom Peters- The work of tomorrow will be done by multifunctional projectization and horizontal systems. 9. Utilizing the consultant-facilitator role: In the early phases at least, help of external (third party) OD consultant is required. Also, more and more internal members should be trained in facilitation skills. 10.Action research: That is, participative mode of diagnosis and action taking in which the leader, members and OD practitioners work together.
Values, assumptions and beliefs in ODBelief is a proposition about how the world works that the individual accepts as true. Values are also beliefs. They are about what is desirable or good and what is undesirable or bad. Assumptions are beliefs that are regarded as so valuable and obviously correct that they are taken for granted and rarely examined and questioned. OD values and assumptions have been developed from research and theory by behavioral scientists and from the experiences and observations of practicing managers. OD values tend to be humanistic, optimistic and democratic.
OD Values Robert Tannenbaum (1969)
OD Values 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 People are basically good. Consider people as human beings. Viewing people in process. Accept individual differences and utilize them. Utilize individual as whole person. Facilitate appropriate expression and use of feelings. Authentic behavior. Use of status for organizationally relevant processes. Trust people. Make appropriate confrontation with relevant data. Willingness to take risk. Process work as essential for effective task accomplishment. Emphasis on collaboration.
As against People are bad. Negative evaluation of people. Viewing people as fixed. Resisting and fearing individual differences. Utilize individual in terms his/her job description. Block expression of feelings. Maskmanship and game playing. Use of status for maintaining power and prestige. Distrust people. Avoid facing others. Avoid taking risks. Process work considered as unproductive. Emphasis on competition.
Foundations of OD- An Overview
F1Models and Theories of Planned Change
F3Participation and Empowerment
F4Teams and Teamwork
F5Parallel Learning Structures
F6Normative Reeducative Strategy of Changing
F7Applied Behavioral Science
3-step model of change- Kurt Lewin (1940) Expanded 7 stage model- Bruce, Lippit, Watson and Wesley (1958) Total system change modelRalf Kilmann (1989) Bruke-Letwin Model of transaction vs. transaction
General systems theory- Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1950) Sociotechnical systems theory (STS)- Trist & Emery (1950) Open systems planning (OSP)Krone, Jayaram, McWhinney (1960)
4-step modelJames Belasco (1990) Model of empowermentKouzes and Posner (1990) Four things of excellent companies- Tom Peters and Nancy Austin (1985)
Grid OD- Robert Blake and Jane Mouton (1975) GroupwareJohansen, Sibbet and others (1991) Eight characteristics of successful teamsLarseon and LaFasto (1989) Disciplined teamKatzenback and Smith (1993)
Bushe and Shani (1980)
Three types of strategies for changing- Chin and Benne (1976)
Group dynamics Motivation Organizational climate MBO, Behavior modeling Counseling
Kurt Lewin (1947)
Foundation 1: Models and Theories of Planned ChangeKurt Lewin (1940)- Three step model expanded as seven stage model for the purpose of OD by Lippit, Watson and Westley (1958).
Lewins Three Step Model Unfreezing
Seven Phases Model Phase 1: Development of a need for change. Phase 2: Establishment of change relationship- client system in need of change and change agent from outside establish working relationship with each other. Phase 3: The clarification or diagnosis of the client systems problem. Phase 4: Examination of alternate routes and goals. Establishing goals and intentions of action. Phase 5: transforming intentions into change efforts.
Moving / Changing
Phase 6: Generalization and stabilization of change. Phase 7: Achieving a terminal relationshipterminating client-consultant relationship.
Total System Change Model Ralf Kilmann (1989)
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Stream Analysis Model- Jerry Porras (1987)
Stream analysis is a system of graphically displaying the problems of an organization, examining the interconnections and graphically tracking the corrective actions taken to solve the problems. Porras categorized the important features of the organizational work setting in four classes of variables (streams). The Four Streams: Organizing arrangements include goals, strategies, structure, administrative policies and procedures, administrative systems, reward systems and ownership. Social factors include culture, management style, interaction processes, informal patterns and networks and individual attitudes. Technology includes tools, equipment, machinery, information technology, job design, work flow design, technical expertise, technical procedures, and technical systems. Physical setting includes space configuration, physical ambiance, interior design, and architectural design.
1. 2. 3. 4.
Stream Analysis Model- Jerry Porras (1987) . Cont.1. 2. 3.
The Process Diagnosis of organizations problems through brainstorming sessions, interviews, questionnaires etc. Task force (representing all organizational units) reviews, discuss, understand and categorize each problem into on of the streams. Four columns are drawn on paper- the column headings are labeled with the four streams. Interconnections between the problems are noted. Problems with many interconnections are considered as core problems. Action plans are prepared to correct the core problems. Action plans and their results are tracked on stream charts.
Bruke-Letwin Model of Individual and Organizational Performance (1994)
Interventions directed toward leadership, mission and strategy and organization culture produce transformational (fundamental) change. Interventions directed toward management practices, structure, and systems produce transactional change (change in organizational climate). OD practitioner should study the situation and then decide what kind of change is required (therefore, what kind of OD intervention is required).
Foundation 2: Systems TheoryGeneral Systems Theory- Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1950)
A system is an arrangement of interrelated parts. Characteristics of Open System All open systems are input-throughput-output mechanisms. Every system has a boundary that separates it from its environment. Open systems have purposes and goals that must align with persons and needs of the environment. the law of entropy states that all systems run down and disintegrate unless they reverse the entropic process by importing more energy than they use. Both positive and negative feedback are necessary for preventing the system from running down. Negative feedback measures whether or not output is on course with the purposes and goals (deviation-correcting feedback). Positive feedback measures whether or not the purposes and goals are aligned with environmental needs (deviation-amplifying feedback) Systems achieve a steady state or dynamic homeostasis against disruptive forcesinternal or external. The basic principle is preservation of the character of the system. Differentiation: Systems tend to get more elaborated, differentiated, specialized, and complex over time (diff