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Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Cardiorespiratory Endurance

Cardiorespiratory EnduranceBasic Physiology of Cardiorespiratory Endurance ExerciseBenefits of Cardiorespiratory ExerciseAssessing Cardiorespiratory FitnessDeveloping a Cardiorespiratory Endurance ProgramExercise Safety and Injury Prevention3-2

The Cardiorespiratory SystemCardiorespiratory system: system that circulates blood through the body; consists of the heart, blood vessels, and respiratory system3-3

Benefits of Cardiorespiratory Endurance ExerciseCardiorespiratory endurance exercise helps the body:Become more efficientCope better with physical challengesResist chronic diseases3-4FIGURE 3.2Immediate and long-term effects of regular cardiorespiratory endurance exercise3-5

Improved Cardiorespiratory FunctioningEndurance exercises enhance heart health:Maintaining or increasing the hearts blood and oxygen supplyImproving the heart muscles functionStrengthening the hearts contractionIncreasing the hearts cavity sizeIncreasing blood volumeReducing blood pressure3-6Improving Cellular MetabolismRegular endurance exercise improves metabolismIncreases capillaries in musclesAllows training muscles to make the most of oxygen and fuelIncreases mitochondriaPrevents glycogen depletion3-7

Reduced Risk of Chronic DiseaseCardiovascular DiseasesCancerType 2 DiabetesOsteoporosisInflammationInflammation: bodys response to tissue and cell damage, environmental poisons, or poor metabolic healthDeaths from all causes Physically fit people have reduced risk of dying prematurely3-10

Better Control of Body FatRegular exercise increases daily calorie expenditureExercise increases resting metabolic rateImproved immune functionImmune system: The physiological processes that protect us from diseases such as colds, bacterial infections, and even cancerExercise increases immune function3-11FIGURE 3.3Survival rates for older adults doingvigorous, moderate, or no exercise, 199220083-12

SOURCE: Wen, M, et al 2013 Physical activity and mortality among middle-aged and older adults in the United States Journal Physical Activity & Health Published onlineImproved Psychological and Emotional Well-BeingPerforming physical activities provides proof of skill mastery and self-controlEndurance exercises lessen anxiety, depression, stress, anger, and hostility, while improving sleep3-13Choosing an Assessment TestThe 1-Mile Walk TestEstimates level of maximal oxygen consumption based on time it takes to complete one mile of brisk walking and the heart rate at the end of the walkThe 3-Minute Step TestMeasures how long it takes the pulse to return to normal after three minutes of stepping exercise 3-14Choosing an Assessment TestThe 15-Mile Run-Walk TestOxygen consumption increases with speedThe Beep TestA prerecorded series of tones sound off at faster and faster intervals, and the exerciser must keep up with the beepsMonitoring Your Heart RateMeasure your heart rate using a heart rate monitor or counting your pulse beatsInterpreting Your Score3-15FIGURE 3.4Checking your pulse3-16

Developing a Cardiorespiratory Endurance ProgramSet realistic goalsSet starting frequency, intensity, and duration of exercise at appropriate levelsChoose suitable activitiesWarm up and cool downAdjust program as fitness improves3-17Setting GoalsSet SMART goalsSpecificMeasurableAttainableRealisticTime frame-specific3-18

Applying the FITT EquationFrequency of TrainingExperts recommend 3 to 5 days per weekIntensity of TrainingTarget heart rate zone: Heart rates that should be reached and maintained during cardiorespiratory endurance exercise to obtain training effectsHeart rate reserve: Difference between maximum heart rate and resting heart rate3-19

Applying the FITT EquationIntensity of trainingMET: Unit of measure that represents bodys resting metabolic rateRatings of perceived exertion (RPE): System of monitoring exercise intensity based on assigning a number to the subjective perception of target intensityTalk test3-20

Applying the FITT EquationTime (duration) of trainingTotal duration of 20 to 60 minutes per day recommendedType of activity Cardiorespiratory endurance exercises include activities that involve rhythmic use of large muscle groups for an extended period of time3-21FIGURE 3.5Ratings of perceived exertion (RPE)3-22SOURCE: Pick, H L, ed 1978 Psychology from Research to Practice Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishing Corporation With kind permission of Springer Science and Business Media and the author

TABLE 3.2Target Heart Rate Zone and 10-Second Counts3-23

TABLE 3.3Approximate MET and Caloric Costs of Selected Activities for a 154-Pound Person3-24

FIGURE 3.6The FITT principle for a cardiorespiratory endurance workout3-25

TABLE 3.4Estimating Exercise Intensity3-26

TABLE 3.5Sample Progression for an Endurance Program3-27

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