blood erythrocytes (rbc), leukocytes (wbc), platelets, & plasma

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  • BloodErythrocytes (RBC), Leukocytes (WBC), Platelets, & Plasma

  • BloodFunctionTransport nutrients, wastes, body heat, etc thru bvComponents55% Plasma fluid matrix45% Erythrocytes (rbc) O2 transport>1% Leukocytes (wbc) protect body>1% Platelets cell fragments used for clottingFun Facts4-6 liters of blood per person 7% of body weight Temp 38oCpH between 7.35 7.45Salty-metallic taste5x thicker than water

  • Blood Plasma90% waterDistributes body heat through out bodyContains dissolved nutrients, salts, resp. gases, hormones, plasma proteins, wastes, and products of cell metabolismPlasma ProteinsAlbumin maintains osmotic pressure of bloodClotting Proteins prevents blood loss from injured bvAntibodies protect body from pathogens

  • Erythrocytes (rbc)Biconcave disc shape (large s.a. to volume)Anucleate - lacks a nucleusLack cellular organelles including mitochondria (so do not use O2 themselves)Hemoglobin (Hb) Fe carries 4 molecules O21rbc carries 1 billion molecules O2Avg male 13-18g Hb/100ml bloodAvg female 12-16g Hb/100ml bloodAnemia low rbc or low HbPolycythemia high rbc (high alt or bone marrow cancer)Last 120 days broken down by liver and spleen

  • Leukocytes (wbc)Live days, months, or even yearsAbout 4,000-11,000 wbc/mm3 bloodCan move in and out of bvRespond to chems sent out from damaged cellsWhen in action body doubles #wbc w/in hrsLeukocytosis>11,000 wbc indicates bacterial or viral infectionLeukopeniaDecrease in wbc Typically due to corticosteroids or anticancer drugsLeukemiaCancer of bone marrowToo many immature wbc to defend off pathogens

  • Types of LeukocytesGranulocytes granule containing wbc w/lobed nucleiNeutrophils phagocytes at site of infectionEosinophils increases w/allergies and infections by parasitic wormsBasophils histamine (chem incr. wbc to site) containing granulesAgranulocytes lack cytolasmic granulesLymphocytes in lymphatic tissue (T cells and B cells)Monocytes largest wbcBecome macrophages when enter tissuesFight off chronic infections

  • Platelets & HemostasisPlatelets irregularly shaped, needed for clotting processHemostasis local stoppage of blood flowPlatelet Plug FormsPlatelets become sticky and cling to damaged siteRelease clotting factors to increase platelets to site to create plugVascular Spasms OccurSerotonin is released to cause bv to spasm and narrow to decrease blood lossCoagulationInjured tissue releases Tissue Factor (TF)TF combines with Ca+2, vitamin K, and PF3 prothrombinProthrombin converted to thrombinThrombin + fibrinogen FibrinFibrin traps rbc to start clot and pulls ruptured bv closer together

  • Hematopoiesis Blood Cell FormationHemocytoblast stem cell in rbm takes 3-5 days to form rbcRbc divides and synthesizes HbIncr. Hb ejects nucleus and most organellesEnters bloodstreamRbc falls apart in 100-120 daysEliminated by phagocytes, spleen, and liverErythropoietinhormone controls rate of rbc productionProduced by kidneys and targets bone marrowThrombopoietin increases production of plateletsInterleukins and colony stimulating factors increase production of wbc from bone marrowReleased in response to inflam chems, bacteria, or toxins

  • Blood Types & TransfusionsPhlebotomist hs degree + training + examABO Blood GroupsBased on 2 antigens A&BAntibodies formed in infancyDetermined by anti-A, and anti-B serumsRh Blood GroupsOnce Rh- contacts Rh+ produces antibodiesPregnant Rh- mom carrying Rh+ baby RhoGAM prevents moms antibodies from attacking fetusHemolysis rupture of rbc

  • Fetal Hb vs. Adult HbBy day 28 of fetal development embryonic blood cells circulate in blood vesselsFetal Hb (HbF) differs from adult HbAHbF has a greater ability to pick up O2 b/c fetal blood less O2 rich than mothersIf fetal rbc destroyed so quick that liver cannot rid of bile fast enough causes infant jaundice

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