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  • This article was downloaded by: [Erciyes University]On: 21 December 2014, At: 03:50Publisher: Taylor & FrancisInforma Ltd Registered in England and Wales Registered Number: 1072954 Registeredoffice: Mortimer House, 37-41 Mortimer Street, London W1T 3JH, UK

    Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery,Utilization, and Environmental EffectsPublication details, including instructions for authors andsubscription information:

    Biogas Production from Two-stageAnaerobic Digestion of Jatropha curcasSeed CakeN. Sinbuathong a b , P. Sirirote c , B. Sillapacharoenkul d , J.Munakata-Marr e & S. Chulalaksananukul fa Scientific Equipment and Research Division , Kasetsart UniversityResearch and Development Institute (KURDI), Kasetsart University ,Bangkok , Thailandb KU-Biodiesel Project, Center of Excellence for Jatropha, KasetsartUniversity , Bangkok , Thailandc Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science , KasetsartUniversity , Bangkok , Thailandd Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of AppliedScience , King Mongkut's University of Technology North Bangkok ,Bangkok , Thailande Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines ,Golden , Colorado , USAf Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering ,Mahidol University, Salaya Campus , Nakornpathom , ThailandPublished online: 24 Sep 2012.

    To cite this article: N. Sinbuathong , P. Sirirote , B. Sillapacharoenkul , J. Munakata-Marr & S.Chulalaksananukul (2012) Biogas Production from Two-stage Anaerobic Digestion of Jatrophacurcas Seed Cake, Energy Sources, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and Environmental Effects, 34:22,2048-2056, DOI: 10.1080/15567036.2012.664947

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  • Energy Sources, Part A, 34:20482056, 2012

    Copyright Taylor & Francis Group, LLC

    ISSN: 1556-7036 print/1556-7230 online

    DOI: 10.1080/15567036.2012.664947

    Biogas Production from Two-stage Anaerobic

    Digestion of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake




    1Scientific Equipment and Research Division, Kasetsart University Research

    and Development Institute (KURDI), Kasetsart University, Bangkok, Thailand2KU-Biodiesel Project, Center of Excellence for Jatropha, Kasetsart University,

    Bangkok, Thailand3Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University,

    Bangkok, Thailand4Department of Agro-Industrial Technology, Faculty of Applied Science, King

    Mongkuts University of Technology North Bangkok, Bangkok, Thailand5Civil and Environmental Engineering, Colorado School of Mines, Golden,

    Colorado, USA6Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Mahidol

    University, Salaya Campus, Nakornpathom, Thailand

    Abstract Digestion of Jatropha curcas seed cake was investigated in two-stage (aci-dogenic and methanogenic) anaerobic bioreactors without pH adjustment. Acidogenic

    reactors were fed once daily with a slurry of 1:10 Jatropha curcas seed cake:watercontaining approximately 100 g of chemical oxygen demand/l. Organic loading rates

    were 2.5, 3.3, 5, 10, and 20 kg chemical oxygen demand/, which correspondedto hydraulic retention times of 40, 30, 20, 10, and 5 days, respectively, for each

    reactor stage. The maximum methane yield (340 l at STP/kg of chemical oxygendemand degraded) was observed at an organic loading rate of 3.3 kg chemical oxygen

    demand/ (hydraulic retention times D 30 days for each stage). At this organic

    loading rate and hydraulic retention time, the chemical oxygen demand degradationefficiency was 65%. The average pH in the acidogenic and methanogenic reactors was

    4.9 and 7.4, respectively. This study demonstrates high methane yield and degradationextent of Jatropha curcas seed cake in a two-stage anaerobic process without chemicaladdition for pH adjustment.

    Keywords agricultural waste, anaerobic digestion, bioenergy, biogas, Jatropha cur-cas, methane, two-stage operation


    Every year in the world several million tons of agricultural wastes are disposed of through

    methods, such as incineration, land application, and land filling. This global waste has a

    high potential as a biorenewable energy resource and can be turned into high-value by-

    Address correspondence to Dr. Nusara Sinbuathong, Scientific Equipment and ResearchDivision, Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute, Kasetsart University, Bangkok10900, Thailand. E-mail:





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  • Anaerobic Digestion of Jatropha curcas Seed Cake 2049

    products (Isci and Demirer, 2007). Jatropha curcas is a drought-resistant shrub belonging

    to the family Euphorbiaceae, which is cultivated on a large scale in Central and South

    America, Southeast Asia, India, and Africa (Schmook and Seralta, 1997). Jatropha curcas

    seed cake is one of the agricultural wastes considered as a possible energy source. The

    seed cake is a by-product of oil extraction from the seeds; the oil can be used as a

    substitute for diesel after transesterification (Singh et al., 2008). With the known high

    potential of Jatropha curcas for energy production, researchers have generally focused on

    the production of biodiesel (Achtena et al., 2008). A few studies have investigated biogas

    production from Jatropha curcas seed cake. Most of these studies were conducted using

    batch operation and single stage semi-continuous operation. In general, they conclude

    that Jatropha curcas seed cake is a good biogas source, due to the high conversion rates

    and efficiencies obtained (Staubmann et al., 1997; Singh et al., 2008; Sinbuathong et al.,

    2010, 2011).

    The solids concentration of Jatropha curcas seed cake is crucial to ensure sufficient

    gas production. However, high solids content may cause a system failure due to the acidic

    pH of the seed cake slurry (Gunaseelan, 2009; Sinbuathong et al., 2010, 2011). In the

    previous studies, the initial pH of the Jatropha curcas slurry needed to be adjusted to

    neutral during the start-up period in order to prevent system failure (Sinbuathong et al.,

    2010, 2011). For batch operation, the appropriate Jatropha curcas seed cake-to-water ratio

    for methane (CH4) production was found to be in the range of 1:20 to 1:10 (Sinbuathong

    et al., 2011). For a single-stage semi-continuous operation, the organic loading rates

    (OLRs) were found to be optimal between 1.25 and 1.67 kg chemical oxygen demand

    (COD)/m3.d (Sinbuathong et al., 2010). In the present study, higher OLRs were applied

    to the two-stage system under the assumption that phase separation may be appropriate

    for the digestion of the acidic slurry of Jatropha curcas seed cake, because acidogenic

    bacteria favor an acidic aqueous environment in the first phase as described below.

    The anaerobic biodegradation is carried out by three groups of bacteria: (1) hydrolytic

    and fermentative bacteria, which hydrolyze the long chain molecules and ferment the

    resulting monosaccharides to organic acids; (2) acetogenic bacteria, which convert these

    acids to acetate, hydrogen (H2), and carbon dioxide (CO2); and (3) methanogenic bacteria,

    which convert the end products of acetogenic reactions to methane (CH4) and carbon

    dioxide (CO2). Several studies have proposed the physical separation of these phases

    in order to increase the degradation of organic matter, improve biogas production, and

    attain better control of operating conditions (Derimelk and Yenigun, 2002; Kasapgil and

    Ince, 2000; OKeefe and Chynoweth, 2000; Yu et al., 2002). The metabolic pathways

    of the two-stage anaerobic digestion process are th


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