jatropha curcas l report biozio
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JATROPHA CURCAS LREPORTwww.biozio.com
Santa Rosa de Cabal. Noviembre de 2011Compendio OSDAVILO
Introduction to the Biofuel IndustryJatropha curcas is a non-edible, succulent shrub from the Euphorbiaceae family. The plant originates from Central America and East Africa and is known today in many countries throughout the tropics as a source of biodiesel. Jatropha has been used in many regions of the world by the locals. As the shrub is inedible to animals, Jatropha plants were traditionally used as living fences to prevent animals from grazing the fields. The oil was also traditionally used in villages of countries such as India to light lamps. The Jatropha plant started gaining the attention of the world from the start of this century, as scientists, businesses and entrepreneurs began looking for alternative sources of energy and biofuels. Jatropha, being a non-food crop with distinct advantages such as adaptability to a wide range of climates & soils, drought & pest/insect resistance, high productivity and oil yields, quickly emerged as a crop with high potential for bio-energy feedstock. Since 2005, worldwide investment in Jatropha research & cultivation has accelerated tremendously, and by 2008, organized Jatropha cultivations have been reported in over 25 countries. Economic Importance of Different Plant-Parts of Jatropha All parts of the plant exude sticky, astringent latex that dries to a reddish-brown brittle substance resembling shellac which can be used as marking ink. The latex has different alkaloids like Jatrophine, Jatropham, Jatrophone, and Curcuine that are anti-cancerous.
Bark - The bark contains tannins, wax, resins, saponins, reducing sugar and traces of volatile oil. A decoction of the bark is given for rheumatism and leprosy. The root bark is used in external application for sores. Twigs - Tender twigs are used for cleaning teeth. Leaves - The leaf juice is used to relieve toothache, strengthen gums and also as an external application for piles. Leaves are used for treatment of malaria. Decoction of leaves and root is given for diarrhea. Seeds - Oil from the seeds of jatropha contain mainly oleic, linoleic and palmitic acids as constituent fatty acids and the oil is non-edible due to the presence of a toxic substance curcascine, and anti-nutritional factors like phorbol esters. Conventionally, the seed-oil is used as an illuminant, lubricant, soap and for candle making. The seed cake contains toxic elements but is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, and can be used as manure.
The oil and the sediment are used for soap production and the press cake as a good organic fertilizer. The oil also contains an insecticide. The oil can be used as fuel in pre-combustion chamber diesel engines and as lubricant. Jatropha has great commercial value as an oil crop mainly because its seedoil has immense potential for exploitation as a source for biodiesel. The seeds contain 35-40% oil that can be converted into biodiesel by transesterification. Jatropha biodiesel can be used for burning in internal combustion engines. Use of biodiesel reduces atmospheric pollution and substantially helps in controlling the Greenhouse effect.
Properties of JatrophaJatropha curcas is a large coarse annual shrub which can grow 3.5 to 4.5 meters tall. It has thin, often greenish bark which exudes copious amounts of watery sap when cut. The Jatropha plant is an easy-to-grow plant that can be cultivated through cutting propagation. The plant requires 400 mm of rainfall annually. There is no specific soil requirement. Hence, the plant can grow just anywhere, even in deserts! The time taken for a Jatropha plant to produce seeds depends on the method of cultivation. If the plant is grown from seeds, it would take 2 years to produce seeds. But if the plant is cultivated from cuttings, it would take just a year. Jatropha seeds have a high oil content of 35-40% of their weight. The kernels have 50-60% oil. The seeds are believed to contain toxic chemicals. Hence, they are unfit for human consumption. Jatropha Oil has a high cetane number of 51. The energy content is 39.7. Chemical Properties of Jatropha
Moisture 6.62% Protein 18.2% Fat 38.0% Carbohydrates 17.30% Fibre 15.50% Ash 4.5%
Characteristics of JatrophaJatropha seed is toxic in nature and it contains purgative oil and a phytotoxin / toxalbumin (curcin) similar to ricin in Ricinus. Main Toxins in Jatropha Curcin, a phytotoxin (toxalbumin), is found mainly in the seeds and also in the fruit and sap. The oil contains small amounts of an irritant curcanoleic acid, which is related to ricinoleic acid and crotonoleic acid, the principle active ingredients of castor oil and croton oil respectively (Joubert et al., 1984). Other Toxins: There may be an alkaloid, and a glycoside, in jatropha, which produce cardiovascular and respiratory depression. Tetramethylpyrazine (TMPZ), an amide alkaloid has been obtained from the stem of Jatropha podagrica (Ojewole & Odebiyi, 1981). Atropine-like effects have also been reported following ingestion of Jatropha multifida (Aplin 1976). Effects of Seed Toxicity Due to several different toxic principles, neither the seeds nor the press cake nor the oil of Jatropha curcas can be used for human or animal nutrition. Jatropha curcas nut poisoning in humans after accidental consumption of the seeds have been recorded and shows symptoms such as giddiness, vomiting and diarrhea, nausea, gastrointestinal irritation have been reported. The consumption of raw seeds is considered to produce cramps and uneasy feelings in stomach.
Extracting Jatropha OilExtraction of oil from Jatropha seeds is done in a manner similar to that for most other oil seeds. The ripe seeds are allowed to dry, when they split open and discharge the seeds. The seeds are dehulled after harvesting. Dehulling can be done by hand (laborious) or, more commonly, by machine. Small-scale hand-operated dehullers are also available. The dehulled seeds are cleaned, cooked and dried prior to oil extraction. Cooking is done to coagulate protein (necessary to permit efficient extraction), and for efficient pressing. The first stage of oil extraction is pre-pressing, normally using a high pressure continuous screw press called the expeller. Extracted oil is filtered, and the material removed from the oil is fed back into the stream along with fresh material. Material finally discharged from the press, called Jatropha cake, contains 8-10% oil. It is crushed into a coarse meal, and subjected to solvent extraction with heptane to extract further oil. Jatropha oil extraction can be divided into two main stages: 1. Pre-extraction. 2. Extraction.
Pre-extraction of Jatropha OilSeed Cleaning The Jatropha beans have some foreign materials and dirt that get separated by hand picking. The seed cleaner pictured below is a basic type of seed cleaner for efficient cleaning of seeds. Drying, Heating & Conditioning The cleaned beans are sun dried in the open, until the casing splits and sheds the seeds. The beans are further dried in the oven at 60C for seven hours to a constant weight in order to reduce their moisture content, which initially would have been about 5 to 7%. Pre-heating or drying the seeds prior to expelling also improves the release of the oil by breaking the cell walls and by thinning the oil. Shelling / Dehulling & Winnowing Most oil-bearing seeds need to be separated from their outer husk or shell. This process is referred to as shelling, dehulling or decorticating. Shelling increases the oil extraction efficiency and reduces wear in the expeller as the husks are abrasive. In general, some 10% of husk is added back prior to expelling as the fibre allows the machine to grip or bite on the material. After dehulling, the shell may have to be collected separately from the kernels by winnowing. At small scale this can be done by throwing the material into the air and allowing the air to blow away the husk. At larger scales mechanical winnowers are available. Milling & Grinding Milling: Milling is carried out to reduce the size of particles and improve the efficiencies of extracting oil. Grinding: Mortar and pestle are normally used to crush/grind the beans into paste (cake). This process weakens or ruptures the cell walls for oil extraction.7
Extraction of Oil from Jatropha Seed The cleaned and prepared Jatropha seeds are sent for extraction. Oil extraction is done usually in two stages.Compendio OSDAVILO
1. The first stage employs pressing the seeds for oil this stage is also called expelling. 2. The second stage uses a solvent extraction method to extract the remaining oil.
Pressing / ExpellingNew methods of oil expelling use presses to extract the oil from the seed. Small presses like the Bielenberg ram press can be powered by hand, by one or several operators. Capacity is then typically 1-10 kg/h of seeds. Larger capacity presses, especially the screw presses, are powered by engines. The strainer type press has its oil output in the form of strainers. The strainers are built up in the form of bars, and their inter-spacings (gaps) are adjustable. The whole press tube mostly consists of the strainer. The diameter of the screw increases over the length to get a rising compression of the seed. Sections with changing diameter can be found several times on the screw. During the flow of the seed through the press, the oil is drained via the strainer, which surrounds the pressing space. The choke size can be adjusted to press the seed harder. With some types of