bibliography of architectural terra cotta

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  • Bibliography of architectural terra cotta Prepared for English Heritage by The Architectural Conservation Laboratory, Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, Graduate School of Fine Arts University of Pennsylvania Frank G. Matero, project director Andrew Gustine, conservation fellow January 19, 2001

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    1. "Architectural Terra Cotta." Annual Report of the Director, Bureau of Standards, U.S. Bureau of Standards, 1917-1919.

    2. "Architectural Terra Cotta." Engineering News 93, no. July 24 (1924): 160.

    3. "Architectural Terra Cotta and Faience As Materials for Decorative Application." The Brickbuilder 2 (1893): 34-36, 48-49, 57-58, 66-68. Abstract: A four part series very similar to Timme (same volume). In fact, this reads as if it were a revised version of the former

    4. "Architectural Terra Cotta Investigations." American Architect 128, no. August 12 (1925): 139. Abstract: A half-page synopsis of the results of ongoing testing of architectural terra cotta by the Bureau of Standards (US). Testing and analyses include investigations into the physical properties of terra cotta bodies, the interaction of bodies, slips and glazes, and outdoor service tests on different body and glaze combinations. Terra cotta was also examined in-situ to determine serviceability under various conditions in different U.S. cities. Manufacturing methods were also investigated. All documentation of this testing was apparently lost in a fire, and to date, there is no evidence that any data was ever published or duplicated

    5. "Architectural Terracotta." Brick and Clay Record 33 (1910): 31-35. Abstract: Discusses the advantages of architectural terracotta as a structural and decorative material. According to the article, the primary advantages include its flexibility and ability to mimic or harmonize with other materials, strength, fire-resistance, lightness, durability, and low cost. The article argues that the primary aim of the terracotta industry is to improve the fire-resistance of terracotta units, and attributes the current demand for enameled terracotta to its ease of cleaning. Describes possible methods for the use of enameled terracotta as a structural material. Includes a letter from Reid Bros., a terracotta manufacturing company, and articles from 'The Brickbuilder' and the 'Boston Herald' extolling the fire proof properties of terracotta

    6. "Architectural Terracotta and Faience." Brick and Clay Record 32 (1910): 135-36. Abstract: Describes uses of faience as an architectural material on both the exterior and interior of buildings. The article also cites a paper by F G Plant, art director of the Hartford Faience Co, providing an account of the history of the use of terracotta in the United States, a discussion of the advantages of using faience as an architectural material, and a description of the manufacturing process for glazed tiles

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    7. "Architectural Terracotta Investigations." ACS Bulletin 4, no. 8 (1925): 408-10.

    8. "Architectural Terracotta Investigations." NTS Technical News Bulletin 8 (1925): 3. Abstract: Describes the results of investigations on the performance of terracotta as a building material carried out by the National Terracotta Society. The tests performed included: compressive strength, transverse strength, resistance to freezing, and coefficient of expansion, and investigations on the expansion of glaze, body, and underslips of terracotta units using the interferometer method. The study also included tests performed on eight ceramic bodies with twelve different finishes produced at terracotta plants in accordance with standard practice, an examination of the conditions of terracotta in service for 2 to 30 years using samples taken from buildings in major cities in the United States, and a survey of 14 terracotta plants with the purpose of standardizing manufacturing practices

    9. "The Architectural Use of Building Materials." Post War Building Studies No 18 (1946): 28-29.

    10. Brick and Clay Record. Chicago: Cahners Publishing Co., 1911. Abstract: Brick and Clay Record was formed in 1911 by the merging of Brick (1894) and the Clay Record (1892). Described by the American Ceramic Society in !923 as playing a "prominent role in the technical as well as business advancement of the ceramic industries; particularly those branches whose products enter into the construction of buildings, pavements, [etc.]"

    11. Brick and Pottery Trades Journal. 1896-1914. Abstract: Merged with Master Builder and Association Journal

    12. Brick-Builder. Vol. 1-25. Boston: Rogers and Manson Co., 1892-1916. Abstract: The Brick-builder was an important forum for architect, builder and terra cotta manufacturer, publishing articles monthly addressing brick and terra cotta design, manufacture and construction. Several specific articles are cited in this bibliography but it is also important to note that every issue includes a brief but illustrated column describing recent terra cotta buildings and listing bits of manufacturing news. Photographs of facades and decorative details are captioned with building name, architects name and typically with the name of the terra cotta manufacturer. The Brick-builder was absorbed by the Architectural Forum in 1917

    13. Brick, Pottery and Glass Journal. Vol. 1-7. 1877-1880.

    14. The Bulletin of the American Ceramic Society. Columbus, OH: American

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    Ceramic Society, 1922. Abstract: The Bulletin was initially established to afford an outlet for papers and discussion of practical industry related subjects as the Society became more focussed on scientific research of a more esoteric nature. Several articles pertinent to the terra cotta industry are found in the first decade of its publication

    15. "Clay Products in Modern Environment." Brick and Clay Record 76 (1930): 316-17.

    16. The Clayworker. Vol. 1-100. Indianapolis, IL: T.A. Randall and Co., 1884-1933. Abstract: Described by the American Ceramic Society in 1923 as the "pioneer clay trade journal in the world." Publisher and editor T.A. Randall was also instrumental in establishing the National Brick Manufacturers' Association in 1886 and the Clayworker became "the official organ of the Association"

    17. "Cleaners for Terracotta." NBS Technical News Bulletin 131 (1928): 32. Abstract: Discusses the results of a study conducted by the National Bureau of Standards examining the physical properties of architectural terracotta and several cleaners for terracotta. The study found that sodium hydrosulphite and fluorosilicic acid can clean terracotta without causing damage. It was found that trisodium phosphate can clean standard finishes, but is unsuccessful in cleaning glazed finishes. Soap powder and hydrochloric acid appear to clean unglazed terracotta moderately well, but tend to scour and roughen the glazed surfaces. It was also found that hydrofluoric acid removes dirt well, but etches glazed surfaces, and can cause damage to both glazed and unglazed terracotta

    18. "Cleaning the Face of London." American Architect and Building News 3139 (1929): 238.

    19. "Coade's Gallery of Artificial Stone Ornaments." Somerset House Gazette and Literary Museum (1924).

    20. "Constructional Terracotta and Faience of Today." The Brick Builder (1934): 20-27. Abstract: A valuable insight into the use of faience in Britain, 1934. The historic value of this article should not be underestimated

    21. A Descriptive Catalogue of Coade's Artificial Stone Manufactory. London: 1784.

    22. "Design and Construction of Terra Cotta Columns." The Brickbuilder 8, no. 9 (1899): 176-78.

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    23. English Precedent to Modern Brickwork. Chicago: The American Brick Face Association. Abstract: Discusses and illustrates Tudor and Georgian precedents to modern brickwork. Attempts to illustrate the spirit of the design and craftsmanship of this period. Indicates that brick design presents a wide choice in variation of surface tone, patterns, and other treatments. Provides a chronology of British brickwork, and a brief survey of Tudor, Georgian, and American brickwork. Describes English rubbed, cut and moulded brick, and their American counterparts, bonds and mortar in English brickwork and the production of face brick. Includes photographs and drawings of Tudor, Georgian and American brickwork

    24. Friends of Terra Cotta Quarterly. New York: Friends of Terra Cotta, 1980. Abstract: An informal letter of 12 to 20 pages addressing current events relating to architectural terra cotta manufacture and construction, endangered terra cotta buildings and historic restoration projects

    25. 'Glazed Expressions', Journal of Tiles & Architectural Ceramics Society (c/o Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust, Ronbridge, Telford, Shropshire TF8 7AW).

    26. A History of Real Estate Building and Architecture in New York City During the Last Quarter of a Century. New York: Arno Press, Inc, 1967. Abstract: A history of real estate building and architecture in New York City during the last quarter of a century

    27. "How Terracotta Is Made." Clay Record (Reprinted From New York Times) 5 (1896): 26-28. Abstract: Describes the procedures for manufacturing architectural terracotta, including the procedures for making moulds, and preparing and pressing the clay. Indicates that vitrifying ingredients, or grit (ie, fine ashes, sand, ground or burned clay or pulverized fire brick) can regulate shrinkage during firing. Describes pug mills, and the pugging, pressing, and firing process. After firing for ten days, the terracotta is removed from the kiln, transported to the site, and installed

    28. "Illustrating the Perfection of


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