Bibliography of architectural terra cotta

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<ul><li><p> Bibliography of architectural terra cotta Prepared for English Heritage by The Architectural Conservation Laboratory, Graduate Program in Historic Preservation, Graduate School of Fine Arts University of Pennsylvania Frank G. Matero, project director Andrew Gustine, conservation fellow January 19, 2001 </p></li><li><p>2 </p><p> 1. "Architectural Terra Cotta." Annual Report of the Director, Bureau of Standards, U.S. Bureau of Standards, 1917-1919. </p><p> 2. "Architectural Terra Cotta." Engineering News 93, no. July 24 (1924): 160. </p><p> 3. "Architectural Terra Cotta and Faience As Materials for Decorative Application." The Brickbuilder 2 (1893): 34-36, 48-49, 57-58, 66-68. Abstract: A four part series very similar to Timme (same volume). In fact, this reads as if it were a revised version of the former </p><p> 4. "Architectural Terra Cotta Investigations." American Architect 128, no. August 12 (1925): 139. Abstract: A half-page synopsis of the results of ongoing testing of architectural terra cotta by the Bureau of Standards (US). Testing and analyses include investigations into the physical properties of terra cotta bodies, the interaction of bodies, slips and glazes, and outdoor service tests on different body and glaze combinations. Terra cotta was also examined in-situ to determine serviceability under various conditions in different U.S. cities. Manufacturing methods were also investigated. All documentation of this testing was apparently lost in a fire, and to date, there is no evidence that any data was ever published or duplicated </p><p> 5. "Architectural Terracotta." Brick and Clay Record 33 (1910): 31-35. Abstract: Discusses the advantages of architectural terracotta as a structural and decorative material. According to the article, the primary advantages include its flexibility and ability to mimic or harmonize with other materials, strength, fire-resistance, lightness, durability, and low cost. The article argues that the primary aim of the terracotta industry is to improve the fire-resistance of terracotta units, and attributes the current demand for enameled terracotta to its ease of cleaning. Describes possible methods for the use of enameled terracotta as a structural material. Includes a letter from Reid Bros., a terracotta manufacturing company, and articles from 'The Brickbuilder' and the 'Boston Herald' extolling the fire proof properties of terracotta </p><p> 6. "Architectural Terracotta and Faience." Brick and Clay Record 32 (1910): 135-36. Abstract: Describes uses of faience as an architectural material on both the exterior and interior of buildings. The article also cites a paper by F G Plant, art director of the Hartford Faience Co, providing an account of the history of the use of terracotta in the United States, a discussion of the advantages of using faience as an architectural material, and a description of the manufacturing process for glazed tiles </p></li><li><p>3 </p><p> 7. "Architectural Terracotta Investigations." ACS Bulletin 4, no. 8 (1925): 408-10. </p><p> 8. "Architectural Terracotta Investigations." NTS Technical News Bulletin 8 (1925): 3. Abstract: Describes the results of investigations on the performance of terracotta as a building material carried out by the National Terracotta Society. The tests performed included: compressive strength, transverse strength, resistance to freezing, and coefficient of expansion, and investigations on the expansion of glaze, body, and underslips of terracotta units using the interferometer method. The study also included tests performed on eight ceramic bodies with twelve different finishes produced at terracotta plants in accordance with standard practice, an examination of the conditions of terracotta in service for 2 to 30 years using samples taken from buildings in major cities in the United States, and a survey of 14 terracotta plants with the purpose of standardizing manufacturing practices </p><p> 9. "The Architectural Use of Building Materials." Post War Building Studies No 18 (1946): 28-29. </p><p> 10. Brick and Clay Record. Chicago: Cahners Publishing Co., 1911. Abstract: Brick and Clay Record was formed in 1911 by the merging of Brick (1894) and the Clay Record (1892). Described by the American Ceramic Society in !923 as playing a "prominent role in the technical as well as business advancement of the ceramic industries; particularly those branches whose products enter into the construction of buildings, pavements, [etc.]" </p><p> 11. Brick and Pottery Trades Journal. 1896-1914. Abstract: Merged with Master Builder and Association Journal </p><p> 12. Brick-Builder. Vol. 1-25. Boston: Rogers and Manson Co., 1892-1916. Abstract: The Brick-builder was an important forum for architect, builder and terra cotta manufacturer, publishing articles monthly addressing brick and terra cotta design, manufacture and construction. Several specific articles are cited in this bibliography but it is also important to note that every issue includes a brief but illustrated column describing recent terra cotta buildings and listing bits of manufacturing news. Photographs of facades and decorative details are captioned with building name, architects name and typically with the name of the terra cotta manufacturer. The Brick-builder was absorbed by the Architectural Forum in 1917 </p><p> 13. Brick, Pottery and Glass Journal. Vol. 1-7. 1877-1880. </p><p> 14. The Bulletin of the American Ceramic Society. Columbus, OH: American </p></li><li><p>4 </p><p>Ceramic Society, 1922. Abstract: The Bulletin was initially established to afford an outlet for papers and discussion of practical industry related subjects as the Society became more focussed on scientific research of a more esoteric nature. Several articles pertinent to the terra cotta industry are found in the first decade of its publication </p><p> 15. "Clay Products in Modern Environment." Brick and Clay Record 76 (1930): 316-17. </p><p> 16. The Clayworker. Vol. 1-100. Indianapolis, IL: T.A. Randall and Co., 1884-1933. Abstract: Described by the American Ceramic Society in 1923 as the "pioneer clay trade journal in the world." Publisher and editor T.A. Randall was also instrumental in establishing the National Brick Manufacturers' Association in 1886 and the Clayworker became "the official organ of the Association" </p><p> 17. "Cleaners for Terracotta." NBS Technical News Bulletin 131 (1928): 32. Abstract: Discusses the results of a study conducted by the National Bureau of Standards examining the physical properties of architectural terracotta and several cleaners for terracotta. The study found that sodium hydrosulphite and fluorosilicic acid can clean terracotta without causing damage. It was found that trisodium phosphate can clean standard finishes, but is unsuccessful in cleaning glazed finishes. Soap powder and hydrochloric acid appear to clean unglazed terracotta moderately well, but tend to scour and roughen the glazed surfaces. It was also found that hydrofluoric acid removes dirt well, but etches glazed surfaces, and can cause damage to both glazed and unglazed terracotta </p><p> 18. "Cleaning the Face of London." American Architect and Building News 3139 (1929): 238. </p><p> 19. "Coade's Gallery of Artificial Stone Ornaments." Somerset House Gazette and Literary Museum (1924). </p><p> 20. "Constructional Terracotta and Faience of Today." The Brick Builder (1934): 20-27. Abstract: A valuable insight into the use of faience in Britain, 1934. The historic value of this article should not be underestimated </p><p> 21. A Descriptive Catalogue of Coade's Artificial Stone Manufactory. London: 1784. </p><p> 22. "Design and Construction of Terra Cotta Columns." The Brickbuilder 8, no. 9 (1899): 176-78. </p></li><li><p>5 </p><p> 23. English Precedent to Modern Brickwork. Chicago: The American Brick Face Association. Abstract: Discusses and illustrates Tudor and Georgian precedents to modern brickwork. Attempts to illustrate the spirit of the design and craftsmanship of this period. Indicates that brick design presents a wide choice in variation of surface tone, patterns, and other treatments. Provides a chronology of British brickwork, and a brief survey of Tudor, Georgian, and American brickwork. Describes English rubbed, cut and moulded brick, and their American counterparts, bonds and mortar in English brickwork and the production of face brick. Includes photographs and drawings of Tudor, Georgian and American brickwork </p><p> 24. Friends of Terra Cotta Quarterly. New York: Friends of Terra Cotta, 1980. Abstract: An informal letter of 12 to 20 pages addressing current events relating to architectural terra cotta manufacture and construction, endangered terra cotta buildings and historic restoration projects </p><p> 25. 'Glazed Expressions', Journal of Tiles &amp; Architectural Ceramics Society (c/o Ironbridge Gorge Museum Trust, Ronbridge, Telford, Shropshire TF8 7AW). </p><p> 26. A History of Real Estate Building and Architecture in New York City During the Last Quarter of a Century. New York: Arno Press, Inc, 1967. Abstract: A history of real estate building and architecture in New York City during the last quarter of a century </p><p> 27. "How Terracotta Is Made." Clay Record (Reprinted From New York Times) 5 (1896): 26-28. Abstract: Describes the procedures for manufacturing architectural terracotta, including the procedures for making moulds, and preparing and pressing the clay. Indicates that vitrifying ingredients, or grit (ie, fine ashes, sand, ground or burned clay or pulverized fire brick) can regulate shrinkage during firing. Describes pug mills, and the pugging, pressing, and firing process. After firing for ten days, the terracotta is removed from the kiln, transported to the site, and installed </p><p> 28. "Illustrating the Perfection of Terracotta Ceramic Veneer." Architect and Engineer 125 (1941): 40-51. </p><p> 29. Journal of the American Ceramic Society. Vol. 1-83. Columbus, OH: American Ceramic Society, 1918. Abstract: A monthly journal </p></li><li><p>6 </p><p> 30. "Keeping Buildings Safe." Atlantic Terra Cotta 7, no. 5 (1924): 6-7. </p><p> 31. Lorsque La Royaute Cescendit Du Ciel. Les Fouilles Du Tell Kannas Sur L'Euphrate En Syrie. Morlanweitz: Musee Royal de Mariemont, 1983. Abstract: Catalogue of an exhibition documenting the excavations of the Belgian archaeological mission at Tell Kannas (Syria), one of the ancient sites located in the area of the projected great dam of Tabqa on the River Euphrates. Includes chapters on the civilizations of Western Asia from the neolithic period to the Roman conquest, history of Tell Kannas and account of recent findings (map, drawings and photographs), catalogue of the ceramics, and an appendix on mud-brick architecture </p><p> 32. "The Manufacture of Terra Cotta." The Ceramist 6, no. 3 (1925): 548. </p><p> 33. "The Manufacture of Terracotta in Chicago." American Architect and Building News (1876): 420-421. Abstract: Discusses the history of the use of architectural terracotta in the United States, and the manufacture and use of terracotta as an architectural material in Chicago. Indicates that architects in Chicago, acquainted with the capacities of terracotta for producing ornament, exploited the artistic qualities of this plastic material. The manufacture of terracotta in Chicago was initiated in 1868 by the firm of Hovey &amp; Nichols, followed by the Terracotta Company of Chicago in 1869. This company later received commissions for buildings across the United States. Describes the factory of the Terracotta Company of Chicago, and the processes used in manufacturing various types of terracotta works </p><p> 34. "The Place of Terra Cotta in Post-War With Special Reference to the Problem of Atmospheric Pollution." British Clayworker 53 (1944): 76-77. </p><p> 35. "Reading's New Terminal." Public Ledger - Philadelphia (1893). </p><p> 36. "Report of the Committee on Definition of the Term Ceramic." ACS Journal 3 (1920): 526-42. Abstract: A thorough discussion of the etymological, technical and practical origins and contemporary uses of the term ceramic, or ceramics. Although no final definition is presented or approved, conclusions are drawn which outline the scope and form of contemporary meaning. Appendices include dictionary definitions of the 19th and 20th centuries, and an analysis of the etymology of ceramic, by a professor of classics at the University of Illinois </p><p> 37. Report on the Clay Deposits of Woodbridge, South Amboy and Other Places in New Jersey, Together With Their Uses for Fire Brick, Potter, Etc. Trenton, </p></li><li><p>7 </p><p>NJ: Naar, Day &amp; Naar Printers, 1878. Abstract: Describes the properties of clays used for manufacturing terracotta, and basic procedures for surveying clay deposits, with a brief description of the Woodbridge Fire Clay Bed formation in New Jersey. Indicates that clay can be used for making pottery, making refractory materials, making building materials and for other miscellaneous purposes. Describes the procedures for examining clay deposits. The examination usually consists of a survey of its surface features, natural outcrops and artificial cuttings, and testing the ground by boring and digging trial pots, or shafts. Includes appendices on methods of analysis, a list of fire clays examined by the survey for comparison with other New Jersey clays, and analyses of some American fire clays </p><p> 38. "Restoring the Terracotta on Grand Old Buildings." New York Times, 9 May 1985. Abstract: Describes common deterioration conditions in terracotta, and procedures for conservation of architectural terracotta. Indicates that faulty installation, lack of maintenance, and improper repairs can cause significant damage. Cautions that repairing and replacing terracotta requires skilled experts since each building has a unique structure and ornamental details. Replacement usually involves the removal of damaged units, making plaster moulds of the intact pieces, and installation of new materials and fixings. Provides examples of conservation projects involving installation of replacement terracotta units, including replacements for gilded terracotta work on the Batterymarch Building in Boston </p><p> 39. "Setting Terra Cotta." American Architect 123, no. May 9 (1923): 425-26. Abstract: A very brief, general specification for setting terra cotta adopted by the Chicago Department of Buildings and written by a committee composed of three architects and three manufacturers. The language and content are very similar to the National Terra Cotta Societys Architectural Terra Cotta - Standard Construction, of 1922, and the New York Building Congresss Standard Specification for the Setting of Terra Cotta, of 1929 </p><p> 40. Sites. Vol. 18. Lumen Inc.. Abstract: Architectural terra cotta issue. An illustrated study of the history and development of the terra cotta industry and its impact on New York's architecture. Includes a directory of 170 major New York buildings and historical background on 48 American terra cotta companies </p><p> 41. "Le Superfici Dell'Architettura: Il Cotto...</p></li></ul>

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