ARISTOTLE. ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.) Founder of every science or domain of study known to humans PhysicsLiterary Criticism ChemistryAnthropology BiologyEthics

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> ARISTOTLE </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.) Founder of every science or domain of study known to humans PhysicsLiterary Criticism ChemistryAnthropology BiologyEthics MetaphysicsPolitical science MetereologyPsychology Logic </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Original contributions to philosophy after Aristotle Augustine Theory of the Will Thomas dAquino Phil. of Human Nature Hegel Dialectic, elaboration of Aristotle Marx Political Economy &amp; Social Psychology first major advance beyond Aristotle - but based on Aristotle, - called the Aristotle of the 19th century Heidegger Phenomenology Aristotelian psychology </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Modernists reject Aristotle Descartes his skepticism became basis of individualistic exploitation of community Locke skepticism leads to theory of property rejecting Aristotles understanding of individual within community Smith complete rejection of Aristotles theory of moral economy Bush-style free enterprise </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> ARISTOTLE (384-322 B.C.) born Macedonia 15 yrs after d. of Socrates student at Platos Academy at age 17 Collaborates with Plato on dialogues - disagreed over essential realities of our world - Forms vs. Substances (living organisms) Leaves Academy after Platos death pursues research in biology Tutor of Alexander Founds Lyceum in Athens (334 BC) </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Raphael, The School at Athens. Vatican museums. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Nicomachean Ethics Reading next 2 weeks </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The complete good (NE i.7key chapter) - what is intrinsically worth pursuing is more complete than what is worth pursuing for something else - the intrinsically choiceworthy most chiceworthy of all things - self-sufficient = Happiness (eudaimonia), but this is commonplacewhat does it mean? </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Happiness (eudaimonia) Eudaimonia living well, doing well Not a state of mind (EN x.6), an activity rather than a state So Aristotle doesnt mean the way you feel eating ice cream or going shopping Aristotle: Maybe, we can understand happiness if we understand function of human </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Aristotle on function (ergon) in general Everything is defined by its ergon and capacity (Politics, Bk.i, ch. 2.1253a23) Ergon = function, work, product Homonymous E.g., function (ergon) of house builder is to build houses (product= ergon) for other members of the community: this is her/his work (ergon). </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Aristotle on function (ergon) cont. E.g., a doctor is the ergon he actualizes: it is easy, Aristotle says, to know various remedies for illness, but how to dispense them and to whom and when, that much a function (ergon) is what it is to be a doctor (NE v.9.1137a16). If something loses its function, ceases to be. An eye that loses capacity to see no longer an eye, except homonymously </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> What is function of human being? (NE i.7) Functions of craftsmen Flute player, carpenter, doctor Not function of individual parts, or function(s) we share with animals or plants Function of living thing involves activity (energeia), the actuality of living = activity of the soul or life-principal (psuche) Since reason distinctive of humans, function of human involves activity in accord w. reason </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Function performed well if performed in accordance with virtue of the thing E.g., knife, goat Conclusion about happiness the human good turns out to be activity of soul in accord with virtue Lets examine the parts of this statement: Soul (Psuche) Virtue (arete) </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Psuche = soul or life-force Nothing to do with religion Greek belief that all living things possess some life principal or force Plants, animals, humans all have soul, but differ in capacities Ensouled things are substances. Psuche is form of the thing What does it mean to say soul is form? </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Form and matter Aristotle says everything that exists in our world is a composite of form and matter Form is nature or whatness of a thing Example of bronze sphere, as teaching tool to introduce more advanced case of form as soul. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Form &amp; matter II The form sphere provides shape for bronze scrap to be worked into bronze sphere. Sphere is whatness of bronze sphere. Soul understood by its capacities, i.e., what organism can do. </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> Capacities of psuche Nutritive shared with plants &amp; animals Perceptual &amp; locomotive shared w animals Intellective/rational distinctly human For happiness to be human, must involve exercise of intellective/rational capacity Aristotle says people who do not live by intellect cannot be happy (EN x.9) </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Intellective capacity Activity (energeia) of Intellective capacity is form- generating &amp; form-perceiving. Same forms that are nature or whatness of things are forms in intellect by which we perceive those things. We acquire forms through experience with things that embody them. E.g., bronze sphere embodies form sphere. </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Aristotle rejects skepticism So, Aristotle argues that knowledge is based on an identity between the knower and the known. That is one result of his theory that all things are composites of form and matter. Ergo, Aristotle rejects skepticism of Descartes. </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Virtue Remember Aristotles definition of happiness: activity/actuality of soul in accord with virtue He adds: and if there are more virtues than one, then in accord with best and most complete virtue (i.7) Cf. list of virtues, right column last table Best and most complete virtue is JUSTICE. </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Justice Justice is the only virtue that seems to be another persons good, for it is related to another, for it does what benefits another (EN 1130a3-4). Justice not a matter of fairness, but rather of helping another. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Justice in economic relations Primary example of justice in Aristotles theory of exchange: a person wealthier or more powerful helps another in their mutual exchange of goods, s/he loses money to the other in the transaction. </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Conclusion: what is happiness? Happiness is fulfillment of the human function of activity of soul in accordance with the virtue of justice to benefit others as much as I am able. </li> </ul>