Classical Realism Aristotle –384-322 B.C. He was a student at Plato’s Academy He opened his own school, The Lyceum. Aristotle –384-322 B.C. He was a student

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Classical Realism Aristotle 384-322 B.C. He was a student at Platos Academy He opened his own school, The Lyceum. Aristotle 384-322 B.C. He was a student at Platos Academy He opened his own school, The Lyceum. </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Aristotles Ontology Prime Matter Principle of Potentiality Pure Form Principle of Actuality FORM and MATTER are separate concepts, but they are never found alone, but matter is prior to form. Prime Matter Principle of Potentiality Pure Form Principle of Actuality FORM and MATTER are separate concepts, but they are never found alone, but matter is prior to form. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> PURE FORM Actuality MindRationalityLaw PURE MATTER Potentiality BodyMateriality Examples of behavior = </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Aristotles Epistemology The Universe is one of orderly design All things exist according to a rational design All things have a rational function or purpose. Acorns become Oak trees, not Elm trees Mans defining characteristic is Rationality. Homo Sapiens- the rational animal. Syllogistic Logic All men are mortal Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is Mortal The Universe is one of orderly design All things exist according to a rational design All things have a rational function or purpose. Acorns become Oak trees, not Elm trees Mans defining characteristic is Rationality. Homo Sapiens- the rational animal. Syllogistic Logic All men are mortal Socrates is a man Therefore, Socrates is Mortal </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Aristotles Epistemology MaterialMatterWood,nails FormalDesignBlueprint EfficientAgentCarpenter FinalPurposeHouse THEORY OF CASUATION </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Aristotles Axiology The Golden Mean is described as "the smaller is to the larger, what the larger is to the whole. It's also known as the Golden Section or the Divine Proportion. It divides a line in such a way as to create an ideal relationship between the parts. The Golden Mean is described as "the smaller is to the larger, what the larger is to the whole. It's also known as the Golden Section or the Divine Proportion. It divides a line in such a way as to create an ideal relationship between the parts. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Mans purpose is to lead a rational life of moderation. The Good life is one of avoiding extremes Mans purpose is to lead a rational life of moderation. The Good life is one of avoiding extremes </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Modern Realism Ontology Argued against Syllogistic logic. Deductive A priori reasoning is flawed because you have TRUTH in hand before you begin. Truth is arrived at through reason (inductive reasoning). The Material world exists independent of human minds Ontology Argued against Syllogistic logic. Deductive A priori reasoning is flawed because you have TRUTH in hand before you begin. Truth is arrived at through reason (inductive reasoning). The Material world exists independent of human minds Francis Bacon </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> Modern Realism Epistomology The scientific (inductive)method Hypothesis Gather evidence Formulate Theory Axiology The good life is attained through scientific skepticism. Examine all previously accepted knowledge. Epistomology The scientific (inductive)method Hypothesis Gather evidence Formulate Theory Axiology The good life is attained through scientific skepticism. Examine all previously accepted knowledge. Francis Bacon </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> The IDOL of the DENLimited experience The IDOL of the TRIBEFollow the Majority The IDOL of the MARKETPLACE Current (faddish) language The IDOL of the THEATER Emotion The Four Idols </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Idealism As A Philosophy of Education Absolutist- The search for TRUTH- True IdeasAbsolutist- The search for TRUTH- True Ideas Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason effectively.Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason effectively. Subjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realizationSubjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realization Character DevelopmentCharacter Development Wisdom Moral conviction Good will Loyalty Absolutist- The search for TRUTH- True IdeasAbsolutist- The search for TRUTH- True Ideas Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason effectively.Rationalist- The search for truth is a rational process. Thus, to be educated, is to reason effectively. Subjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realizationSubjectivist- Individuals should strive for self-realization Character DevelopmentCharacter Development Wisdom Moral conviction Good will Loyalty AIMS of EDUCATION </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Idealism As A Philosophy of Education Depth over breadth Concepts over specific facts Confront problems that arise from the human condition. Self-Directed learning Lecture to stimulate thought, not to convey information Depth over breadth Concepts over specific facts Confront problems that arise from the human condition. Self-Directed learning Lecture to stimulate thought, not to convey information METHOD of EDUCATION </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Idealism As A Philosophy of Education Materials that promote critical thinking. Focus on reading and writing. Reading materials should foster discussion of big ideas. Classic works are favored because they have passed the test of time. Student writing should emphasize both personal expression and clear reasoning. Materials that promote critical thinking. Focus on reading and writing. Reading materials should foster discussion of big ideas. Classic works are favored because they have passed the test of time. Student writing should emphasize both personal expression and clear reasoning. CURRICULUM </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Socrates might serve as the prototype Socratic questioning Teachers serve as role models Intellectual Moral An Idealist teacher tends to see teaching as a calling- more than just an occupation Socrates might serve as the prototype Socratic questioning Teachers serve as role models Intellectual Moral An Idealist teacher tends to see teaching as a calling- more than just an occupation Idealism As A Philosophy of Education ROLE OF THE TEACHER </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Realism as a Philosophy of Education Absolutist- Education should focus on the truth of the natural and physical world Empiricist- Teach students the scientific method of problem solving by exploring the material world Objectivist- Emphasize basic skills and basic facts- 3Rs There are objective skills and facts that all students should learn. Character Development: Establish high standards and increased rigor and hold students accountable Emphasize practical knowledge that will prepare students for the world of work Absolutist- Education should focus on the truth of the natural and physical world Empiricist- Teach students the scientific method of problem solving by exploring the material world Objectivist- Emphasize basic skills and basic facts- 3Rs There are objective skills and facts that all students should learn. Character Development: Establish high standards and increased rigor and hold students accountable Emphasize practical knowledge that will prepare students for the world of work Aims of Education </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Realism as a Philosophy of Education Methods of Education Direct teaching techniques are preferable. Students should be presented information in an organized, efficient and logical format. Given the information overload in todays society, it is important that non-essential learning should be eliminated. Students should be taught based upon their strengths and abilities. Scientific testing should be used to diagnose and place students in settings most appropriate to their needs Technology should be utilized whenever appropriate in schools </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> Realism as a Philosophy of Education Curriculum Curricula should be practical and usefulCurricula should be practical and useful Curricula should concentrate on the Basics and avoid fads and frills.Curricula should concentrate on the Basics and avoid fads and frills. Curricula should be highly organized, correlated and aligned throughout the scope and sequence offered by schoolsCurricula should be highly organized, correlated and aligned throughout the scope and sequence offered by schools Curricula should be based upon pre-established standards and criteria.Curricula should be based upon pre-established standards and criteria. Curricula should be experiential whenever possibleCurricula should be experiential whenever possible </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> Realism as a Philosophy of Education Role of the Teacher A Realist teacher should be a subject matter expert.A Realist teacher should be a subject matter expert. A Realist teachers should be able to present material in an organized and systematic way.A Realist teachers should be able to present material in an organized and systematic way. A Realist teacher should be able to explain the lesson objectives in a way that is understandable to the learner.A Realist teacher should be able to explain the lesson objectives in a way that is understandable to the learner. A Realist teacher should be able to effectively assess students in such a way that all students are challenged and motivated to learn.A Realist teacher should be able to effectively assess students in such a way that all students are challenged and motivated to learn. A Realist teacher should understand current research and technology and be able to utilize it in the classroom.A Realist teacher should understand current research and technology and be able to utilize it in the classroom. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> Pragmatism A 20 th Century Philosophy Often considered to be the American philosophy William James George Herbert Mead John Dewey A 20 th Century Philosophy Often considered to be the American philosophy William James George Herbert Mead John Dewey </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> William James- Percepts &amp; Concepts </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> William James- Concepts </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> William James- Percepts </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> William James- Making Meaning </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> John Dewey Experience and Education </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> John Dewey Experience and Education p. 19 The either/or of the two positions TraditionalProgressive 1imposition from above expression and cultivation of individuality 2external disciplinefree activity 3learning from text/teachers learning through experience 4acquire them as means of by drill attaining ends which make direct vital appeal 5prepare for remote future make most of present opportunities 6static aims and materials awareness of changing world </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Ontology What is real? This is not a useful question.Human beings process perceptions through our senses and construct concepts or ideas. Reality is being constantly constructed through our experiences. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Epistemology Truth is relative to a particular time, culture, place. We learn by making meaning of our experiences. We learn by solving meaningful problems. </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Axiology We derive our moral sense through the social consciousness of the human race. Through personal experience we form habits, beliefs, feelings and emotions. These are always shaped by our social world. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Aims Education is a social process and school is a form of community life. School should promote personal growth on the part of every child. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Methods Methods should emerge from an understanding of a childs powers and interests. A teacher should guide a child towards educative experiences that connect personal growth within community. </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Curriculum Curriculum should grow out of life experiences. It should be centered in authentic problem solving and inquiry. </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Role of the Teacher The teacher should be a guide, not a dispensor of information. Teachers should know their students and their subjects equally well so they can direct students towards educative experiences </li> </ul>