Classification Organizing Life’s Diversity Chapter 17 Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778 Aristotle (384 – 322 B.C.)

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<ul><li><p>ClassificationOrganizing Lifes DiversityChapter 17 Carolus Linnaeus 1707-1778</p><p>Aristotle (384 322 B.C.)</p></li><li><p>17.1 The History of Classification</p><p>Main Idea: Biologists use a system ofclassification to organize information aboutthe diversity of living things.</p><p>Taxonomy the science of grouping organisms based on their similarities.</p><p>A named group of organisms is called a taxa.</p></li><li><p>How many groups can you make?What are they?</p></li><li><p>Aristotles System394 322 B.C.More than 2000 years ago, Aristotle developed the first widely accepted system of biological classification.</p><p>Aristotle classified organisms as either animals or plants.</p><p>This system lasted 2000years, but had problems.</p></li><li><p>Animals were classified according to the presence or absence of red blood.</p><p>Animals were further grouped according to their habitats and behavior.</p><p>Plants were classified by average size and structure as trees, shrubs, or herbs.</p></li><li><p>Linnaeuss System (1707 1778)Linnaeuss system of classification was the first formal system of taxonomy.How are the birds different?</p><p> Perching birdBird of prey Wading bird</p></li><li><p>Binomial NomenclatureLinnaeuss method of naming organisms, called binomial nomenclature, gives each species a scientific name with two parts.</p><p>The first part is the genus name, and the second part is the specific name, that identifies the species.Example:Acer rubrum</p></li><li><p>Binomial NomenclatureBiologists use scientific names for species because common names vary in their use.</p><p>Ursus americanusAmerican black bear</p></li><li><p>When writing a scientific name, scientists use these rules:</p><p>The first letter of the genus name always is CAPITALIZED, but the rest of the genus name and all letters of the specific epithet are lowercase.</p><p>If a scientific name is written in a printed book or magazine, it should be italicized.</p><p>When a scientific name is written by hand, both parts of the name should be underlined.</p><p>After the scientific name has been written completely, the genus name will be abbreviated to the first letter in later appearances (e.g., C. cardinalis).</p></li><li><p>Taxonomic CategoriesThe taxonomic categories used by scientists are part of a nested-hierarchal system.</p><p>Each category is contained within another, and they are arranged from broadest to most specific.</p></li><li><p>Seven Levels of Classificationeach level is more specific than the previousKingdom Phylum Class Order Family Genus species King Phillip Came On Fine German Ships</p></li><li><p> Kingdom: Animalia Phylum: Chordata Class: Mammalia Order: Primates Family: Hominidae Genus: Homo Species: sapiens</p><p>Classification of Humans</p></li><li><p>Species and GenusA genus (plural, genera) is a group of species that are closely related and share a common ancestor.Examples:Homo habilisHomo erectusHomo sapian</p></li><li><p>17.2 Modern ClassificationBased on presumed evolutionary relationships</p><p>Main Idea: Classification systems have changed over time as information has increased.</p><p>Aristotle and Linnaeus thought of each species as a distinctly different group of organisms based on physical similarities.</p><p>Based on the idea that species are unchanging, distinct, and natural types.</p></li><li><p>Cladograms</p><p>Scientists consider twomain types of characters when doing cladistic analysis.</p><p>The greater the numberof derived characters shared by groups, the more recently the groups share a common ancestor.</p></li><li><p>17.3 Domains and KingdomsThe broadest category in the classification used by most biologists is the domain.</p><p>The most widely usedbiological classification system three domains.</p><p>The three domains areBacteria, Archaea, andEukarya.</p></li><li><p>Domain BacteriaKingdom Eubacteriaare prokaryotes whose cell walls contain peptidoglycan.</p><p>What is the make up of aprokaryote cell?</p></li><li><p>Eubacteria are an adverse group that cansurvive in many different environments.</p><p>Some bacteria are;- aerobic and need to breathe oxygen.- anaerobic that die in the presence of oxygen.autotrophic and produce their own food.Most bacteria are heterotrophic and get their nutrition from other organisms, like YOU! There are probably more bacteria in your body than people in the world.</p></li><li><p>Domain ArchaeaArchaea are thoughtto be more ancient than bacteria and yet more closely related to our eukaryote ancestors.</p><p>Archaea are diverse in shape and nutrition requirements Red dots are archaea. </p></li><li><p>They are called extremophiles because they can live in extreme environments.</p><p>Can live in temperatures up to 98C</p></li><li><p>Domain EukaryaAll eukaryotes are classified in DomainEukarya.</p><p>Domain Eukarya contains Kingdom Protista, Kingdom Fungi, Kingdom Plantae, and Kingdom Animalia.</p></li><li><p>Kingdom Protista(Domain Eukarya)Protists are eukaryotic organisms that can be unicellular, colonial, or multicellular.</p><p>Protists are classified into three different groupsplantlike, animal-like, and funguslike. </p></li><li><p>Kingdom Fungi (Domain Eukarya)A fungus is a unicellularor multicellular eukaryotethat absorbs nutrients from organic materials in its environment.</p><p> Member of KingdomFungi are heterotrophic, lack motility, and have cell walls.</p></li><li><p>Kingdom Plantae (Domain Eukarya)Members of KingdomPlantae form the base of all terrestrial habitats.All plants are multicellular and have cell walls composed of cellulose.Most plants are autotrophs, but some are heterotrophic.</p></li><li><p>Kingdom Animalia (Domain Eukarya)All animals are heterotrophic, multicellular eukaryotes.</p><p>Animal organs often are organized into complex organ systems.</p><p>They live in the water,on land, and in the air.</p></li><li><p>VirusesAn ExceptionA virus is a nucleic acid surrounded by a protein coat.</p><p>Viruses do not possess cells, nor are they cells, and are not considered to be living.</p><p>Because they are nonliving, they usually are not placed in the biological classification system.</p></li></ul>


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