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Carolus Magnus. Charlemagne and the European Idea. Feudal Reminders. Much like China Lord of the Manner Underlings, nobles Serfs Feudalism not around until about 1000ish Merovingian Gaul Hereditary ownership of fiefdoms from sons of Merovech the Salian Frank - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Carolus Magnus

Carolus MagnusCharlemagne and the European IdeaFeudal RemindersMuch like ChinaLord of the MannerUnderlings, noblesSerfsFeudalism not around until about 1000ishMerovingian GaulHereditary ownership of fiefdoms from sons of Merovech the Salian FrankClovis ca 500 unites GaulCharlemagne's familyAustrasiaEastern France, Low Countries, AachenMerovingian Maiores of the Palace, hereditary ministers and landownersLocal rulers ascend to great power thanks to hereditary mode and decentralization of central authorityUnlike Diocletian, Constantine, Justinian, Abbasids complex state bureaucracies Personal and close structure determined by abilities of ruler

Fall of the Merovingian Merovingian plunder economy mid 8th cLast Kings of Merovingians are weak Long hair of Stephen cut and he's sent to a monastery'Empty name of King' - EinhardMayor of the Palace holds all power Ability to tax the population dwindles with decentralization of powerPlunder economy dries up after they rule everything and have no land to promise followersGrimoald tries to depose Mervingians but he's executed, 661Blood of Clovis is strong but Grimoald's family stays as MaioresRise of the carolingiansCan't take power from Merovingians without reason soRationale for legitimacy for the Maiores to take overElection? Hereditary line? Success in war? Economist?Opponents, especially Neustria (Paris), look for takeover, tooMilitary successAlly with Bishop of Rome who was threatened by Lombards and put off by iconoslasmMonks generally Irish or British serve as bridge from Austrasia to Rome. St Boniface converts Germans with help from Austrasia Maiores.

733, Tours (poitiers)Highwater mark for caliphate into EuropeCharles Martel, Maior of Austrasia

Pepin the short, 741-68Cements deal with papacy, monasteries, and the Austrasians Mobilizes family power with churchHelps Boniface's reformsRestoration of Church landsRole of king as guardian of ChurchWrote to the Pope "is it right for the man who holds the power not to wear the crown?"751, Pepin elected King of the FranksDeposes and puts to monastery last of the Merovingians753, Pope Stephen goes across the Alps to crown PepinPepin in return defeats the LombardsSucceeded by Charles and CarlomanCharles, King of the FranksBeneficiary of 100 years of Carolingian ascentWeak kings, monks, success in war, byzantine iconoclasm, Lombard threatPapacy shifts from looking east to looking north

Charles, king of the franksBeneficiary of 100 years of Carolingian ascentWeak kings, monks, success in war, byzantine iconoclasm, Lombard threatPapacy shifts from alliance with Roman emperors and other patriarchates to northern allianceCombines military prestige (Lombards and Avars and Saxons and Bavarians, Barcelona, The Song of Roland),piety (Christian ruler, mass forced conversions, and love of St Augustine, oversees cultural programme) and Legacy of Rome rescues Pope from Roman factions, coronated HREFounder of Europe as a cultural expression

Carolingian renaissanceRevival of learning under Charlemagne and Louis the Pius & Charles the Bald"Ministry to see to salvation of public good"Revive the Roman EmpirePlanned programme like the House of Wisdom Revive Latin as the universal language

Preservation of learning in the west before charlesRoman culture required wealthy, educated, laymen: liberal artsPractically, to enter government you must have knowledge (like China, or 19th c Britain)Athens, Pergamon (parchment), Alexandria, Constantinopleall in the east!Disappearance of lay literacy in EuropeBoethius and Cassiodorus of Vivarium (liberal arts as aid to religious understanding)Italy devastated by BelisariusBenedictine monks, by accidentIrish, English, and Italian monasteries 264 manuscripts survive 26 are secular! Role of the scriptorium

Charlemagne's cultural programme'Industrial' output'We are concerned to restore with zeal the workshops of knowledgewe invited others to learn to practice the liberal arts.'Intellectuals direct government, given great privilege, be sure the church and the state are effective and uniform. Carolingian script.Educate populace and church.Alcuin of York

ManuscriptsCollect, collate, annotateNo innovation reverence for the originalsFirm idea the truth is being handed down in two parts: Bible/church fathers and ClassicsRegularize liturgy, develop standards for poetry and spellingFight against iconoclasm and adoptionismFrom 26-290 classical manuscripts from 700-800Polybius, Livy, Tacitus, Vergil, Cicero, LucretiusPalimpsest Growth of libraries @ Reichennal,Corbie, Lorsch, Tours, St Gall, Aachen

EinhardBiographer of CharlemagneMonastic entrepreneur Seliganstadt monastery under his purview power of the reliquaryLife of Sts Marcellinus and Peter