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Ensuring Success for High School Students with Disabilities: Creating Options and Engaging Students Washington Hilton & Towers, Washington D.C. October 8, 2003 Margo Vreeburg Izzo, Ph.D. Ohio State University, Nisonger Center 257 McCampbell Hall 1581 Dodd Drive Columbus, OH 43210-1257 614-292-9218 [email protected]

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  • Archived InformationEnsuring Success forHigh School Students with Disabilities: Creating Optionsand Engaging Students

    Washington Hilton & Towers, Washington D.C. October 8, 2003

    Margo Vreeburg Izzo, Ph.D.Ohio State University, Nisonger Center257 McCampbell Hall1581 Dodd DriveColumbus, OH [email protected]

  • Project HIRE: Follow-up ofHigh School VocationalStudents with Disabilities

  • Project HIRE: Cont.THE TREATMENTTransition Services Included:Vocational AssessmentCoordinating Interagency Supports through IEP/IPE processExtended Time in Vocational TrainingEmployment Instruction and CounselingJob DevelopmentJob Interview ServicesJob CoachingFollow Along


    Five Years of OBES Wage Data (1991-95)

    Independent living and employmentmeasures as reported by parents andyouth through questionnaire (1998)

  • Demographic Characteristics of the Participants by Group

  • Mean Earnings for EightQuarters by Group - 1993

  • Post-School Outcomesby Group - 1998

  • Comparison of Employment Outcomes Across Transition Studies

    StudyMalesFemalesNPercentNPercentNATIONAL LONGITUDINAL TRANSITION STUDY (1991)Youth with disabilities194153%100530%Youth without disabilities Comparison Population632565%259748%General Population632568%259754%PROJECT HIRE (1991-93)Experimental Group2968%1458%Control Group2050%1338%OREGON/NEVADA FOLLOW-UP (1991)Youth with disabilities27571%14740%Youth without disabilities6865%6360%

  • Self-Determination (SD)and Career Development (CD)Research suggests that poor post-school outcomes of youth with disabilities are due to their limited SD and CD skills. These skills are often not cultivated at the secondary level because of limited opportunities to make self-directed choices and explore careers.

  • Use IEP Process to Teach SDStudent Directed IEPs:Helps students learn to advocate and manage their own education programHelps students become knowledgeable about their disabilityHelps students develop a sense of independence and perseveranceHelps students learn problem solving and conflict resolution

  • The NLTS:Postsecondary EnrollmentAbout 15% of students with disabilities enrolled in postsecondary education

    Youth with disabilities were far less likely to enroll in colleges and postsecondary vocational schools than youth in the general population after having been out of school 3-5 years.

  • Strategies to Increase Successful Transition to CollegeSummer Orientation ProgramsDSP participation in IEP processSelf-determination class offered in high school and collegeTeach students self-advocacy and AT useProvide Up-to-Date Documentation

  • DocumentationStudents Should Exit High School:With up-to-date documentation that indicates diagnosis, how diagnosis was reached, and how disability affects major life activities, including postsecondary education;Transition summary should include:Results of testing on adult versions, andRecommendations on accommodations, services, and supports needed to be successful in postsecondary, employment and independent living settings

  • OPE DemonstrationGrants FundedImprove quality of education for postsecondary students with disabilities21 projects funded 1999-200221 projects funded 2002-2005All projects provide professional development activities for faculty and administrators

  • Needs of Postsecondary FacultySome faculty members are unaware of the many services and supports available to assist college faculty and students with disabilities.

    Mellard, 1994; Minskoff, 1994, Izzo, Hertzfeld & Aaron, 2003

  • Faculty/TA QuotesThere is a movement to train TAs to meet the needs of students with disabilities. However, the department as a whole doesnt address the issue.

    (Teaching Assistant focus group, personal communication, January 24, 2001.)

  • Faculty/TA Quotes (Cont.)I think that some students do not come out (to disclose) because of a stigma. Im not sure how you educate people in regards to that . . .

    (Teaching Assistant focus group, personal communication, January 24, 2001)

  • Faculty/TA Quotes (Cont.)When I hear someone has dyslexia, I have no idea what the individual deals with or what it means. I do not think many of us know much about disabilities.

    (CSCC faculty, personal communication, November 12, 2000)

  • Faculty/TA Quotes (Cont.)People respond to disability in different ways. That is why some students try to get through classes without saying anything to you. All they need is one bad experience and they are going to try to avoid saying anything to you. I think it goes back to trust . . .

    (Human Ecology Faculty member, personal communication, February 29, 2000)

  • Engaging Faculty at Postsecondary Level1.Improve communication among faculty,students & Disability Support Services (DSS)Establish a department liaison with DSS officeProvide overview of how to access DSS services and supportsProvide students with DSS brochures to help with disclosure process 2. Add Disability Statement to Syllabi

  • Engaging Faculty (Cont.)3.Provide training to faculty and TAs on topicssuch as: Universal Design for LearningWeb accessibility and ATRoles and responsibilities of faculty, students and DSS staff4. Equip computer stations with AT devices for students to use within the department

  • Project GRAD: Follow-up of College Graduates with DisabilitiesPurpose:To explore services, accommodations, supports, and outcomes.To determine the types of accommodations and assistive technologies (AT) used in high schools, college, and the workplace.

  • Project GRAD: MethodsGraduates targeted for the study were those who graduated between 1999-2001. (N=139)Graduates were recruited through disability service providers (or equivalent) at 20 colleges and universities nationally.Graduates were asked to participate in a 25-minute phone interview on employment outcomes, instructional accommodations, and AT supports used in school and work settings.

  • Project Grad: Identification Data39% of participants indicated their disability was first identified within college41% reporting ADHD were first identified at the secondary and postsecondary levels19% reporting a Psychiatric Disability were identified at the secondary and postsecondary levels.Project GRAD

  • Project Grad:Instructional AccommodationsReading, Attention Span, and Listening were identified as the top three areas of how disability impacted learningProviding extra time for tests and assignments, a quiet learning environment and communicating instructional needs with instructors were the top three instructional accommodationsProvision of instructional accommodations was more frequent at the postsecondary vs. secondary69% of participants indicated they were Very Satisfied with the instructional accommodations they received 1% indicated they were Very DissatisfiedProject GRAD

  • Project GRAD:Assistive Technology (AT)48% of participants indicated they first learned to use AT at the postsecondary level74% of AT users indicated they taught themselves how to use the device17% of AT users indicated that they needed an AT that was not provided to them and 9% indicated they were asked to use AT that they did not think they needed53% of participants indicated they were Very Satisfied with the AT they received 3% indicated they were Very Dissatisfied.Project GRAD

  • Project GRAD: Employment Outcomes82% of participants indicated they were currently employed78% reported hourly wages between $6 and $15 an hour, with the mean wage at $12In general, AT does not appear to transfer from postsecondary to the workplace17% of participants indicated some level of dissatisfaction with their ability to discuss accommodation needs with their employerProject GRAD

  • Project GRAD: ImplicationsData suggest the following:Provide AT supports as early as possibleTeach students with disabilities to self-advocate as early as possibleImprove identification and assessment of disability at the secondary level and earlierProvide greater AT and accommodations training to students and disability service providers at the college level

  • Findings: SD & CDPrograms that teach SD & CD skills in context of self-directed, vocational learningexperiences have improved outcomes.

    Vocational experiences can result in better school performance, increased motivation to learn, and the opportunity to develop and refine career interests and make job contacts.

  • Findings: Follow-upSchool and agency personnel who pool funds and resources and deliver follow-up services gain improved employment outcomes.Students who receive extended transition services are significantly more likely to be employed or engaged in training than those without extended transition supports.

  • Recommendations: StudentsEngage Students to-Practice disclosure prior to collegePractice self-advocacy skillsContact teachers earlyWork with college staff to determine what appropriate academic adjustments, aids, or services may be needed

  • Recommendations: TeachersIntegrate SD and CD skills into General CurriculaActively involve students in the IEP and a coordinated assessment processTeach students to coordinate their own accommodationsVisit disability service & employment offices Teach students to use assistive technology (AT)

  • Implications for Policy & PracticeInvolve students in a coordinated assessment and planning process that includes AT supportsFacilitate student-centered IEP meetings and self-directed learning modelsIntegrate SD and CD into curriculaOffer work-based/vocational learning opportunities Extend transition services beyond graduation

  • Implications for Policy & Practice

    Integrate training on SD and CD into cross-agency pre-service & in-service programs, including parentsCollect and use follow-up data to improve services and outcomesProvide training and support for higher education faculty and administrators

    * Data taken from parent interview question, Is your son/daughter doing any paid work, other than work around the house now? (Wagner, et al., 1991)** Youth from general population with demographic characteristics similar to youth with disabilities. (Wagner, et al., 1991)*** Calculated on earnings for a 2 year period following program exit based on $4.25 per hour for 50 weeks of the year. Minimum annual earnings was $4,250.**** Data taken from Oregon/Nevada study. Data reflects youth who were working in 1991 for a minimum of 20 hours per week for at least $4.25 per hour. (Benz, et al., 1997)