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An A.P U.S. History Study Guide for the first half of the year's curriculum

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Lexee Shapiros APUSH Midterm Review Sheet 2014-2015:

Lexee Shapiros APUSH Midterm Review Sheet 2014-2015:

Period 1: (1491-1607):

Columbian Exchange (pg 7-8):

a transfer of plants, animals, and germs from one side of the Atlantic to the other for the first time Indians introduced Europeans to beans, corn, potatoes, tomatoes, tobacco, and syphilis Europeans introduced Native Americans to sugarcane, livestock, iron, guns, germs and diseases (which resulted in the death of millions of Native Americans)Spanish Colonization (pg 8):

Spain sent explorers and conquistadors to the Americas They conquered the Aztecs in Mexico and the Incas in Peru Sent silver and gold back to Spain Enslaved the Indians under the Encomienda System and spread CatholicismFrench Colonization (pg 10):

Mostly settled in Canada First permanent French settlement was Quebec founded by Samuel de Champlain in 1608 Explored Mississippi and claimed Louisiana English Colonization (pg 9):

John Cabot explored Newfoundland After the defeat of the Spanish Armada in the late 1500s, England became more serious about exploration Sir Walter Raleigh established the failed Roanoke colony in North Carolina in 1587Period 2: (1607-1754):

Jamestown (pg 25): First permanent English colony in America Founded in 1607 by a joint stock company The colony almost failed because of swamp land, poor leadership, lazy settlers Indians helped, but then they started fighting the settlers John Rolfe began cultivating tobacco, which became a profitable cash cropHouse of Burgesses (pg 27):

Founded in 1619, the first representative assembly in America, and an early example of self governmentThe Maryland Toleration Act (pg 27):

Passed in 1649, was first colonial law granting religious freedom to all Christians (Catholics and Protestants) But, the law sentenced to death anybody who didnt believe in Jesus (for ex: Jews, Atheists, Muslims)Bacons Rebellion (pg 29): A rebellion of poor frontier (western) farmers who led a rebellion against the governor of Virginia, William Berkley Nathaniel Bacon was upset that Virginias government was not protecting western farmers against Indian attacks Although Bacons Rebellion was eventually defeated, it highlighted class differences between wealthy planters and poor farmers and demonstrated colonial resistance to royal control The end of Bacons Rebellion contributed to the transition of slaveryGrowth of Slavery (pg 37):

Slavery became increasingly important because of the reduced migration of indentured servants to America, the need for a stable labor force, (especially after Bacons Rebellion), and the need for cheap labor to grow cash crops, such as tobacco, rice, and indigoStono Rebellion (quizlet):

The most serious slave rebellion in the the colonial period which occurred in 1739 in South Carolina 100 African Americans rose up, got weapons and killed several whites then tried to escape to S. Florida The uprising was crushed and the participants executed The main form of rebellion was running away, though there was no where to goMayflower Compact (pg 27):

In 1620, pilgrims aboard the Mayflower wrote and signed a document pledging to make decisions based on the will of the majority This was an early form of self governmentCity on a Hill (pg 25-26):

Speech given by John Winthrop, first governor of Massachusetts Bay Colony, that argued the colonists had a covenant with God and must set and example for others to follow Basic Ideas/Beliefs of the Puritans (pg 26):

Church of England (Anglican Church) was too similar to the Catholic Church Puritans followed the teachings of John Calvin and the Doctrine of Predestination Left England in search of religious freedomCreation of Rhode Island (pg 29):

After being banished from Massachusetts, Roger Williams founded Rhode Island as a safe haven for all religions Rhode Island recognized rights of Native Americans Allowed Catholics, Quakers, and Jews to worship freely Accepted Anne Hutchinson when she was banished from Massachusetts for antinomianism (the idea that faith alone, not deeds, is necessary for salvation)Congregationalists (pg 49):

The successors to the PuritansNew England Town Meetings (pg 55):

Local meetings where residents could debate and vote on local issues These were an early example of democracy in AmericaGeorge Whitfield (pg 50):

Influential minister from England Spread the Great Awakening throughout the colonies He gave emotional sermons, attracted huge audiences, and taught that anybody could understand the BibleJonathan Edwards (pg 49):

Influential Reverend in New England Preached that God was angry with human sin and that individuals should express remorse for their sins Most famous sermon: Sinners in the Hands of an Angry GodFirst Great Awakening (pg 49-50):

A mass religious reform movement during the 1730s and 1740s Resulted in more emotional preaching and caused divisions within churches For the first time, the colonists shared a common experience as Americans Had a democratizing affect by changing the way people viewed authorityMercantilism (pg 35):

Economic system in which a country accumulated wealth by using colonies for raw materials and as marketsNavigation Acts (pg 35):

Trade to and from the colonies could be carried only by English or colonial built ships All goods imported into the colonies had to pass through England Certain goods, such as tobacco, could be exported only to EnglandSalutary Neglect (pg 36):

Britains policy of ignoring the colonies as long as England continued to make money This allowed colonies to develop their own economic and political systems Albany Plan of Union (pg 70):

Benjamin Franklins Plan for establishing an intercolonial government to raise troops and collect taxes for a common defense Although it failed, it set the precedent for future, more revolutionary congressesSlavery in Colonial America (pg 37):

Colonies passed slave codes saying that slave status would be inherited & blacks would be held in bondage for life Slave trade was apart of larger Triangular TradePeriod 3: (1754-1800):

French And Indian War Results (pg 71):

Britain and the Colonists defeat the French and their Native American allies Britain becomes dominant power in North America The Era of Salutary Neglect comes to an end as Britain takes a more active role in colonial affairsProclamation of 1763 (pg 72):

To avoid conflict with Native Americans in the Ohio River Valley, the British prohibited colonists from settling West of the Appalachian MountainsVirtual Representation (pg 73):

In response to cries of taxation without representation, Britain defended themselves by saying that the colonistss interests were being represented even without colonists physically in ParliamentStamp Act (pg 72):

Passed by Parliament in 1765 to raise revenue to pay for Bristish troops in the colonies First direct tax on the colonies Colonists were outraged and organized the Stamp Act Congress to protestTownshend Acts (pg 73):

Taxes passed by Parliament on colonial imports of tea, glass, and paper Also allowed for search of private homes for smuggled goods Sons of Liberty (pg 73):

A revolutionary society organized to intimidate tax agents, organize boycotts, and rebel against EnglandCommittee of Correspondence (pg 74):

Initiated by Samuel Adams in 1772 Committees would exchange letters about suspicious or potentially threatening British activitiesDeclaration of Independence (pg 88):

The second Continental Congress formally separated from England Jefferson drew on the Enlightenment ideas by John Locke It listed specific grievances against King George IIIBattle of Saratoga (pg 90):

Turning point in Revolutionary War Resulted in a treaty of alliance with FranceArticles of Confederation (pg 92-93):

First form of government in the U.S. Accomplishments: winning Revolutionary War, Treaty of Paris (1783), Land Ordinance (1785), Northwest Ordinance (1787) Weaknesses: war debt, no power to tax, no foreign policy, weak central government, strong state governmentsShays Rebellion (pg 93):

Revolutionary War veterans and farmers rebelled in Massachusetts against high taxes, imprisonment for debt, and worthless paper money After the rebellion was stopped, colonial leaders met to write the ConstitutionNorthwest Ordinance of 1787 (pg 93):

Congress, (under the Articles of Confederation), set rules for creating new states Prohibited slavery in Northwest territoryGreat Compromise (pg 105):

Major issue was representation in Congress: large states wanted proportional representation based on population and smaller states wanted fixed representation (each state same # of representatives) Provided for a bicameral (2 house) legislature The Senate would have equal representation (2 per state) and the House of Representatives would be based on populationFederalists (pg 107):

Argued in favor of the Constitution because they believed in stronger central government Leaders: Washington, Madison, HamiltonAnti-Federalists (pg 107):

Argued against new Constitution because they believed strong central government would limit democracy and would restrict state rights Also argued in favor of Bill of Rights to protect civil rights Federalist Papers (pg 106):

Series of essays written by Madison, Hamilton, John Jay arguing in favor of Constitution Bill of Rights (pg 108-109):

First 10 amendments to Constitution Supported by Anti-Federalists, who believed U.S. needed protection against a strong central government Examples: 1st Amendment was protection of speech, religion, press, assembly, petitionHamiltons Financial Plan (pg 110-111):

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