ap euro: review sheet for the midterm on the 19 th century

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AP EURO: REVIEW SHEET FOR THE MIDTERM ON THE 19 TH CENTURY. From Napoleon to the Road to WW I. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. I was born in Corsica. NAPOLEON BONAPARTE. Helps overthrow the Directory  coup of Brumaire. CONCORDAT OF 1801. Treaty between the Pope and Napoleon - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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AP EURO: REVIEW SHEET FOR THE MIDTERM ON THE 19TH CENTURY

AP EURO: REVIEW SHEET FOR THE MIDTERM ON THE 19TH CENTURYFrom Napoleon to the Road to WW INAPOLEON BONAPARTEI was born in Corsica.NAPOLEON BONAPARTEHelps overthrow the Directory coup of Brumaire

CONCORDAT OF 1801Treaty between the Pope and NapoleonReestablishes the Catholic Church in France and gave the Pope limited authority over French clergyPope agrees to acknowledge the legitimacy of the French Revolution and NapoleonNAPOLEONS GRAND EMPIREan enlarged FranceDependent statesAllied statesTHOMAS MALTHUSAuthor of Principles of PopulationPOPULATION/FOOD SUPPLYMalthus said there was an inverse relationship between ________ and _________.BURSCHENSCHAFTENGerman student groups that desired liberalism and German unificationTHE CONTINENTAL SYSTEMNapoleons plan to defeat Britain through economic warfareTHE BATTLE OF TRAFALGARMajor naval battle of the Napoleonic Wars -> Britain sinks French fleetWATERLOOThe final battle that defeated NapoleonTHE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONThis began in Britain in the mid 18th centuryKARLSBAD DECREESA set of restrictions that shut down the burschenschaften and placed strict control and censorship over German universitiesAGRICULTURAL REVOLUTIONThis preceded the Industrial Revolution in Britain and created surplus profits and surplus laborBRITAIN AND THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONProfits from tradeGeographyStable governmentLaissez-faireSurplus laborThe ag. Rev.THE STEAM ENGINEFirst used to pump water out of coal minesHARGREAVES SPINNING JENNYFirst machine developed to spin cotton into threadTEXTILESIn what industry was Cartwrights power loom used?HENRY CORTI developed an improved method of manufacturing iron that involved a process called puddlingGEORGE STEPHENSONS ROCKETI was the first commercial railroad, I ran from Manchester to LiverpoolTHE FACTORY SYSTEMa new way of organizing labor in the industrial revolution gather workers and machines togetherFACTORY DISCIPLINEFines and firings for adultsBeatings for childrenTHE GREAT EXHIBITION OF 1851It was held in the Crystal Palace in LondonCONTINENTAL INDUSTRIALIZATIONThis was delayed on the continent because of the French Revolution and Napoleonic WarsDIFFERENCES BETWEEN BRITISH AND CONTINENTAL INDUSTRIALIZATIONBritain = private individualsContinental Europe = governments and big banksTHE IRISH FAMINE POTATO BLIGHTThis caused massive starvation in Ireland in the hungry fortiesEDWIN CHADWICK SANITARY REFORMI advocated piped water and sewerage to improve the citiesNEW SOCIAL CLASSES OF THE INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONCHARTISM AND THE PEOPLES CHARTERThis was a movement for voting rights and reform of parliament in Britain -> it failedLUDDITESArtisans who protested industrialization and attacked and destroyed machinesTHE CONGRESS OF VIENNAOrganized by the quadruple alliance to restore the balance of power and the old regimes following the defeat NapoleonKLEMENS VON METTERNICHI was organizer and mastermind of the Congress of Vienna

CONSERVATISMThis ideology hated radical change, liberalism, and nationalismTHE GREEK REVOLTThis was the only revolution that the old regimes supportedTHE PETERLOO MASSACREInnocent peaceful protesters were shot down in BritainIGNORE THE PARLIAMENTHow did Bismarck win the constitutional struggle in PrussiaTHE KARLSBAD DECREES These were imposed on the German states by Metternich -> they cracked down on liberalism and nationalismTHOMAS MALTHUSI believed that it was fruitless and pointless to help or feed the poorDAVID RICARDOThe iron law of wagesECONOMIC LIBERALISMThis is another name for laissez-faire or free market economics -> govt should stay out of the economyLIBERALISMNatural rightsConstitutionsLimited governmentsLimited voting = property ownersCivil libertiesReligious tolerationUTOPIAN SOCIALISMCharles FourierLouis BlancSaint-SimonNATIONALISMTHE REFORM BILL OF 1832THE REVOLUTIONS OF 1848THE FRANKFURT ASSEMBLYGUISEPPE MAZZINI YOUNG ITALYROMANTICISMReaction against industrializationReaction against enlightenmentFocus on feeling, impulse, the heart not the headWorship of natureFascinated by the supernatural and the grotesqueFascinated with the past the medievalTHE BRITISH ROMANTIC POETSROMANTICISM IN ARTLandscapes and natureROMANTICISM IN ARCHITECTURENeoGothicNAPOLEON III AND THE 2ND EMPIRETHE CRIMEAN WARRussia versus Ottoman EmpireBritish and French join OttomansBalance of power conflictEnd of the concert of EuropeOpens up competition between great powers and Italian and German unificationITALIAN UNIFICATIONPIEDMONT AND CAVOURGARIBALDI AND THE RED SHIRTSGERMAN UNIFICATIONOTTO VON BISMARCKBISMARCKS WARSThe Danish War The Austro-Prussian WarFranco-Prussian War

THE BATTLE OF SEDANTHE GERMAN EMPIRE AND KAISER WILLIAM II became the first ruler of unified GermanyTHE AUSGLEICHThe Compromise of 1867 created the dual monarchy of Austria-Hungary

THE REFORMS OF ALEXANDER IIEmancipation of the SerfsTHE PEOPLES WILLThis group assassinated Tsar Alexander IIVICTORIAN ENGLANDThis was mid to late 19th century EnglandWILLIAM GLADSTONEBENJAMIN DISRAELIREFORM ACT OF 1867KARL MARX AND COMMUNISMTHE CLASS STRUGGLEHEGELS DIALECTICThesisAntithesisSynthesis

BOURGEOISIE AND PROLETARIATThese are the Marxist terms for the workers and the ownersCHARLES DARWINI am the father of organic/biological evolutionREALISMThis followed and rejected romanticismTHE SECOND INDUSTRIAL REVOLUTIONSteelChemicalsPetroleumelectricityEUROPEAN ZONES OF ECONOMIC/INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENTNorthern/Western Europe industrialized and high standard of living

Southern/Eastern Europe nonindustrialized and low standard of livingMARXIST REVISIONISMEduard BernsteinANARCHISMBakunin -> whats my ism?DOMESTIC POLICIES OF BISMARCKBattle against Catholics = kulturkampfBattle against socialismCreate government social welfare programs to win the support of the working classNICHOLAS IIHe was forced by the Revolution of 1905 to issue the October Manifesto creating a liberal constitutional monarchy in RussiaTHE NEW PHYSICSThe CuriesEinsteinPlanckFRIEDRICH NIETZSCHEHe glorified the irrationalHated bourgeois lifeSaid that Christianity is a slave moralitySIGMUND FREUDI am the father of modern psychology -> I was one of the first to probe the mysteries of the unconscious mindINTERPRETATION OF DREAMSThis was Freud first book on how to unlock the secrets of the unconscious/subconscious mindID, EGO, SUPEREGOAccording to Freud the psyche/mind is made up of these three partsSOCIAL DARWINISMApplying Darwinist ideas to races, classes, cultures, and nations to justify inequalityNATURALISMStyle of writing which dominated the late 19th centuryWas a continuation of Realism which dominated the mid-centuryPortray the world as is really is More pessimisticEMILE ZOLA

MODERNISM IN THE ARTSModernism was new and different in that for the first time since the Renaissance artists moved away from trying to represent reality as accurately as possibleModernism was the search for new forms of artistic expression

IMPRESSIONISMFrance 1870sPaint the impressions of the changing effects of light on objects in natureCAMILLE PISSARROCLAUDE MONET

POST-IMPRESSIONISMFrance 1880sPaul Cezanne

Vincent Van Gogh

Paul Gauguin

Toulouse Lautrec

PABLO PICASSO - CUBISMOne of the most important painters of 20th centurySpanish painterMoves to ParisObjects are broken up, analyzed, and reassembled in an abstracted form1st cubist painting LES DEMOISELLES dAVIGNON

ABSTRACT PAINTINGnon-representational paintingRejection of visual realityWassily Kandinsky

EUROPEAN JEWSANTI-SEMITISM still existedThe ideals of the Enlightenment and French Rev led to increased legal equality for the Jews in many countriesJews were emancipated in central and Western Europe a. leave the ghetto b. ASSIMILATE = blend in with everyone elsec. access to university and govt 4. anti-Semitism and pogroms in Eastern EuropeZIONISM - THEODOR HERZLJewish nationalist movementAdvocated a return to Palestine = the ancient land of the JewsTheodor Herzl = the father of political ZionismGoal of Zionism create an independent homeland/nation for the Jews in PalestineTHE RUSSO-JAPANESE WAR 1905Russia versus Japan who will be the dominant power in East Asia/the Eastern PacificRussia loses the war shocking! brown people defeat Europeans for the 1st timeRussias defeat leads to the Revolution of 1905

THE REVOLUTION OF 1905THE BISMARCKIAN SYSTEM OF ALLIANCESBismarck/Germany make military alliances with all the great powers in Europe leave France isolated and aloneTHE TRIPLE ALLIANCEAlliance betweenGermanyAustriaItaly Drops out and is replaced by Ottoman Empire

* The Central Powers in WW ITHE TRIPLE ENTENTEFranceBritainRussia

* Allied Powers in WW ICRISIS AND CONFLICT IN THE BALKANSThree wars fought in the BalkansThe problem was nationalismThe Balkans = the powder keg of EuropeMain enemies in the Balkans were Austria and SerbiaSERBS v. AUSTRIANSThe source of conflict between the two was the region called Bosnia-Herzegovina Austria annexes it but Serbia wants it problems coming = WW ITHE ROAD TO WW IAustria v. SerbiaAustria backed up by GermanySerbia backed up RussiaGermany hates/fears Russia & Russia hates/fears GermanyFrance hates/fears Germany