apush 1st semester exam study guide

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APUSH 1st Semester Exam Study GuideChapters 2-22 Format 80 Multiple Choice Questions 2 Free Response EssaysChapter 2 Sea Dogs and Sir Francis Drake - set out by Queen Elizabeth, to steal treasure and plunder from Spanish settlements and ships in new colonizations. The king knighted Drake Roanoke Colony - island in Virginia, 1st attempt at English colonization, completely disappeared, embarrassing failure 1588- Spanish Armada - Spain was large, united, powerful country but after England basically defeated them in the Spanish Armada England became this powerful united country. After the war, England swarmed to America to take over the colonies and gain colonization power. Signed peace treaty in 1604. Reasons for English Exploration/Emigration o defeated Spain- now powerful o their population was growing rapidly o farmers were enclosing their land for farming o Puritanism was taking a strong hold in woolen districts of western and eastern England o laws of premogentoture- young sons of the rich couldn't inherit money so they tried their luck with fortune in other places like America o joint stock companies were being perfected Virginia Company of London - a joint-stock company in England that received

a charter from King James to settle land in America, were planning on goingmaking quick profit and coming right back The Charter - the charter of the VA Company, stated that settlers were guaranteed the same rights there as in England May 24, 1607 - 100 English settlers, mostly male, founded Jamestown, 40 died during voyage, the three ships originally landed in Chesapeake Bay Jamestown - mosquito infested, diseases, great game and fish but "gentlemen" too focused on profit and don't want to/know how to work, many die during starvation, founded by English colonists Captain John Smith - 1605, took over Jamestown and whipped the colonists into discipline, saved them from dying like Roanoke, forced colonists to work in order to eat Powhatan - Indians near Jamestown, fake kidnapped John Smith (to show peace), eventually would have many problems with colonists, Chief Powhatan dominated many tribes in James River area, English called all Indians in the are Powhatans, saw English as allies until they raided them and stole their food Pocahontas - "saved" John Smith as a sign of peace between the two groups "Starving Time" - winter of 1609-1610, very high mortality rate, life expectancy40 years, death of children before age 5- 80%, harsh winters and starvation killed many Lord De La Warr - English leader at the time (Delaware), given orders by Virginia Company to start war (First Powhatan War), used "Irish Tactics" "Irish Tactics" - De La Warr raided villages, burned houses and fields, used in First Powhatan War First Powhatan War - (1614), led by De La Warr using Irish tactics, ended in 1614 with peace settlement and marriage between John Rolfe and Pocohontas/1614-1622 peace with Powhatans and English/1622-1644 periodic attacks with English and settlers, 1622- Indians attack English, kill 347 including John Rolfe, VA company orders "perpetual warfare"- killed many and forced westward Second Powhatan War - (1644), last effort of natives to defeat England, get defeated again, peace treaty of 1646- removed Powhatans from original land, formally separated the two groups- banished completely when learned about food and land and no longer needed John Rolfe - married Pocahontas, killed by Indians, finally made colonies prosper with tobacco, father of tobacco 1619 - such a pivotal year for the colonists because it was when the House of Burgesses was formed and the colonists began to feel more independent and make laws, slavery was also born in this year

House of Burgesses - founded in 1619, assumed the role of the House of Commons in England (took control of finances and militia), initiated legislation, James I did not approve- called "seminary of sedition", made the colonists feel more independent and separate from England Royal Colony - King James I revoked the charter of Virginia and bankrupt the VA Company, making Virginia a royal colony under the king's direct control, James hated House of Burgesses and tobacco Lord Baltimore - a royal charter was given to him to create Maryland in 1632, became proprietary colony in 1634, wanted to be a leader that was never there, healthier location than Jamestown, tobacco was the main crop, indentured servants, gave huge tracts of land to Catholic relatives, persecuted Catholics found refuge, Catholics given MUCH religious freedom and all Christians, rest of Protestants didn't like that Catholics got so much religious freedom, atheist did not have freedom Act of Toleration (1649) - supported by the Catholics in Maryland, guaranteed toleration to ALL CHRISTIANS, decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus (Jews, atheist), Economic Importance of West Indies as British were colonizing in Virginia, they were also settling in West Indies (Spain's declining power opened the door) England had secured claim to several islands including Jamaica grew lots of sugar- tobacco of the Caribbean- much more difficult than tobacco Thousands of African slaves were needed to operate sugar plantations and these weren't for the poor either- Africans had skill in sugar, more blacks than whites; would then sell to colonies and all over world and Europe and back to England, made a lot of money Connection between Barbados and the Carolina Colony - Carolinas flourished by developing close economic ties with the West Indies, many original Carolina settlers had come from Barbados (they brought slaves and slave system with them), Gold - the main attraction to colonization and all that the settlers were concerned with and talked about Barbados Slave Code - 1661, a law in North America that gave masters complete and total control of slaves British Political Role in the Founding of Carolina - King Charles had been beheaded and eventually Charles II was at the throne, it was now the restoration period and they were building their empire with great force, a group of small English farmers from West Indies arrived in Carolina (discovered but not granted to), brought black slaves and Barbados slave code with them, named for King Charles II, King granted Carolina to 8 supporters (Lord Proprietors)- hoped to use

Carolina to supply their plantations in Barbados with food and export wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe (seen as secondary colony), close economic ties with West Indies, Indian slaves Carolina was named after Charles II and was formally created in 1670 Principal Crop in Carolina - Rice and Indigo Role of Slaves in Carolina Agriculture - African slaves were hired to work on the rice fields, due to their immunity to malaria and their familiarity with rice Charles Town - AKA Charleston, busiest southern seaport, still a busy seaport, very aristocratic North Carolina Settlers - Conflict- many newcomers to Carolina were "squatters", people who owned no land, (basically created North Carolina), North Carolina developed a strong resistant to authority, due to geographic isolation from neighbors, looked at as irreligious and supporters of pirates by their snobby neighbors (South Carolina), different than Virginia and South Carolina, In 1712 North and South Carolina were officially separated Tuscaroras - In 1711, the Tuscaro Indians attacked North Carolinas, the Carolinians responded by crushing the opposition, selling hundreds to slavery and leaving the rest to wander north, eventually becoming the Sixth Nation of the Iroquois Sir Humphrey Gilbert - The original promoter of the colonization of Americas Sir Walter Raleigh - The man who took over after Sir Humphrey Gilbert died and settled Roanoke as well as named Virginia Original Purpose for the Founding of Georgia/ Georgia in General Georgia was intended to be a buffer between the British colonies and the hostile Spanish settlements in Florida and the enemy French in Louisiana, also meant to be a haven for the wretched souls in debt, founded in 1733 (by high-minded group of philanthropists) it was the last colony founded, named after King George II of England, received financial aide from England during a big war with the French and Spanish, exported silk and wine, determined to keep slavery out (found GA in 1750 for cash crops) James Oglethorpe - the ablest of the founders and a dynamic soldier-statesman, repelled Spanish attacks, he saved the "Charity Colony" by his energetic leadership and using his own fortune to help with the colony John Wesley - All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration, and many missionaries including John Wesley came to try to convert the Indians, he later returned to England and founded Methodism Characteristics/Compare and Contrast Southern Plantation Colonies o slavery was founded in all the plantation colonies, o growth of cities was often stunted by forests

o establishment of schools and churches were often difficult o In the south, the crops were tobacco and rice o All the plantation colonies permitted some religious toleration o Confrontations with Native Americans was often o few powerful people had much land o tobacco ruined the soil so they were forced to go westward o depended on a staple crop Five Tribes of the Iroquois Confederation - the Mohawks, the Oneidas, the Onondagas, the Deganawidah, and the Hiawatha Location of Iroquois - now New York State Longhouses - the building block of Iroquois society, only 25 feet wide but over 200 feet long, longhouses were typically occupied by a few blood-related families (on the mother's side) Role of Women in the Iroquois - everything was on the mothers side of the family and mothers were the head Handsome Lake - An Iroquois named Handsome Lake arose to warn his tribes people to mend their ways; his teachings live today in the form of the longhouse religion Quiz Questions o English efforts in the 1500s to compete with the