Appendicular Skeleton.  Allows us to move and manipulate objects  Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles

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  • Slide 1
  • Appendicular Skeleton
  • Slide 2
  • Allows us to move and manipulate objects Includes all bones besides axial skeleton: the limbs the supportive girdles
  • Slide 3
  • Pectoral Girdle
  • Slide 4
  • Also called the shoulder girdle Connects the arms to the body Positions the shoulders Provides a base for arm movement Consists of the scapula (shoulder blade) and the clavicle (collarbone)
  • Slide 5
  • Scapula (shoulder blade) Features to know Scapular spine Acromion process Corocoid process Glenoid cavity (glenoid fossa) Borders superior, medial, lateral Corners superior angle, inferior angle, lateral angle
  • Slide 6
  • Clavicle S-shaped bones Run from the manubrium to the acromion on the scapula
  • Slide 7
  • Upper Limb
  • Slide 8
  • Consists of arms, forearms, wrists, and hands Note: arm (brachium) = 1 bone, the humerus
  • Slide 9
  • Humerus Also called the arm The long, upper armbone Articulates with the pelvic girdle and forearm
  • Slide 10
  • Humerus Features Head articulates with glenoid fossa Medial and lateral epicondyles Trochlea articulates with ulna Capitulum articulates with radius Olecranon fossa
  • Slide 11
  • Forearm Consists of 2 long bones: ulna (medial) Olecranon process radius (lateral)
  • Slide 12
  • Wrist 8 carpal bones: 4 proximal carpal bones (starting Laterally) Scaphoid bone Lunate bone Triquetrum Pisiform bone 4 distal carpal bones (starting Laterally) Trapezium: Trapezoid bone: Capitate bone: Hamate bone:
  • Slide 13
  • Hand (Metacarpals) 5 long bones of the hand Numbered IV from lateral (thumb) to medial Fingers/Thumb Pollex (thumb): 2 phalanges (proximal, distal) Fingers: 3 phalanges (proximal, middle, distal)
  • Slide 14
  • Pelvic Girdle
  • Slide 15
  • Os Coxae Made up of 3 fused bones: ilium (articulates with sacrum) ischium pubis
  • Slide 16
  • Differences Also called the hip socket Is the meeting point of the ilium, ischium, and pubis Is on the lateral surface of the os coxae Articulates with head of the femur (lunate surface)
  • Slide 17
  • Ilium Iliac crest Anterior superior iliac spine (ASIS) Posterior superior iliac spine (PSIS) Ischium Ischial tuberocity Pubis Pubic symphysis
  • Slide 18
  • Differences between male and female pelvic girdles. Female pelvis: smoother lighter less prominent muscle and ligament attachments Modifications for Childbearing Enlarged pelvic outlet Broad pubic angle (> 100) Less curvature of sacrum and coccyx Wide, circular pelvic inlet Broad, low pelvis Ilia project laterally, not upwards
  • Slide 19
  • Lower Limb
  • Slide 20
  • Consists of: Femur (thigh) Patella (kneecap) Tibia and fibula (leg) Tarsals (ankle) Metatarsals (foot) Phalanges (toes)
  • Slide 21
  • Femur Largest, heaviest bone Features Head articulates with acetabulum Neck Greater trochanter Medial and lateral epicondyles: above the knee joint Medial and lateral condyles: form part of knee joint
  • Slide 22
  • Patella (knee cap) A sesamoid bone Formed within tendon of quadriceps muscles
  • Slide 23
  • Tibia (shin bone) Medial bone in lower leg Supports body weight Features Medial and Lateral Condyles Tibial tuberosity Medial Malleolus medial ankle bone
  • Slide 24
  • Fibula Lateral bone in lower leg Does not support body weight Features Head Lateral Malleolus lateral ankle bone
  • Slide 25
  • Ankle (Tarsus) Consists of 7 tarsal bones Talus Calcaneus (heel bone) Cuboid bone Navicular bone Medial cuneiform Intermediate cuneiform Lateral cuneiform
  • Slide 26
  • Feet (Metatarsals) 5 long bones of foot Numbered IV, medial to lateral Toes (phalanges) Hallux: big toe, 2 phalanges (distal, proximal) Other 4 toes: 3 phalanges (distal, medial, proximal)
  • Slide 27
  • Feet Arches Arches transfer weight from 1 part of the foot to another Longitudinal arch Transverse arch Pes planus flat arches Pes cavus high arches

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