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<ul><li>1.KARTIK BHARADWAJ 131869 1 </li></ul> <p>2. INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW CASE STUDY -1 (Identification of Ambient Air Pollution Prevention Zones Using Remote sensing) CASE STUDY-2 ( Air Quality Monitoring Using Remote Sensing and GIS Technologies) SUMMARY REFERENCES 2 3. Air is essential for all life. All organic material depends on its existence; without it nothing breathes or lives . Air monitoring is of a greater importance to urban populations, because urban areas have been a source of major pollutants and they support a vast number of people in concentrated areas. Common sources of air pollution are: Natural sources I. Volcanic eruptions II. Forest fires Manmade sources I. Smoke emissions from industries II. Vehicular emissions Common pollutants present in air are Aerosols Gases like ozone (O3), nitrogen dioxide (NO2),carbon monoxide (CO), and sulfur dioxide (SO2). 3 4. Chernobyl disaster Bhopal gas tragedy 4 5. Satellite remote sensing provides complete and synoptic views of large areas in one image on a systematic basis due to the good temporal resolution of various satellite sensors satellite remote sensing technology can monitor many pollutants simultaneously. It has the capability to monitor in near real-time, and provides continuously rapid monitoring The different sensors used in mapping air pollution are 1.Landsat TM/ETM+ 2.MODIS AOT 3.ASTER data 5 6. Aerosols Aerosol thickness is monitored by four different methods: ocean method brightness method contrast-reduction method and dark vegetation method 6 7. 7 8. Black Particle Measurement Black particles have a very high negative correlation (-0.97) with the temperature of the atmosphere. One theory regarding pollution is that the more pollution buildup in the atmosphere, the more interception the pollution particles have with the sun light, and the atmosphere will have a lower temperature. The reduction in temperature is usually in the 0.5C range, which is very hard to detect. A very high spatial resolution would be needed to accurately measure black particles 8 9. Land-use / Land-cover change Two images from the same sensor are compared of different dates Interval between the dates must be short Images must be captured at low elevation angles to reduce the effect of electromagnetic radiation. By comparing the two images, a third image was created showing the difference in pollution content between the two days 9 10. 10 11. The first applications of satellite remote sensing of aerosols used the AVHRR, Landsat, and GOES instruments to observe desert particles over ocean All three of them were used to obtain the information about aerosols primarily over water Satellite remote sensing of tropospheric trace gases began in 1978 with the launch of the TOMS instrument onboard the Nimbus 7 satellite TOMS instrument were aimed to determine stratospheric O3, volcanic SO2 ,tropospheric O3 , and ultraviolet absorbing aerosols . 11 12. ERS -2 (GOME-1) GOME-1 is a nadir-viewing grating spectrometer that measures solar backscatter with broad spectral coverage (230790 nm) and moderate resolution (0.2 0.4 nm). GOME-1 retreived the data of tropospheric NO2, HCHO, SO2, and tropospheric O3 12 13. The launch of NASAs Terra satellite in December 1999 significantly expanded scientific perspective about the scale of tropospheric pollution The MOPITT instrument on board Terra is a nadir- viewing gas correlation radiometer operating in the 4.7 mm band of carbon monoxide The MISR and MODIS instruments provide unprecedented information about aerosol abundance and properties at high spatial resolution 13 14. ENVISAT (SCIAMACHY) SCIAMACHY measures backscattered solar radiation upwelling from the atmosphere Eight channels, comprised of grating optics and a linear diode array detector, measure the spectrum over 2141750 nm at resolution of 0.2 1.4 nm, and two spectral bands around 2.0 and 2.3 mm, having a spectral resolution of 0.2 nm. The typical spatial resolution of SCIAMACHY is 30* 60 km2 14 15. Aura (OMI, TES) PARASOL CALIPSO (CALIOP) Aqua (MODIS, AIRS) MetOP (GOME-2, IASI) 15 16. 16 17. Automatic sun-photometer (AERONET) 17 18. Hand-held sun-photometer and PM10 devices 18 19. S.S. ASADI, B.V.T. VASANTHA RAO, M.V. RAJU and M. ANAND SAGAR prepared Air pollution sensitivity map, Air quality map, Dispersion sensitivity map, Aerial sensitivity Map to find out the pollution loads in the study area Mark Tulloch* and Jonathan Li integrated the data from ground stations and satellite imagery to map the air pollution Randall V. Martin described how remote sensing helps in mapping HCHO, Nox,O3 concentrations in Air Rohayu Haron Narashid, Wan Mohd Naim Wan Mohd described about the integration of Remote sensing with GIS for monitoring the air quality O. B.Dick , O. Reistad , S. Hustveit , G. Grepstad , Frits Steenhuisen described the mapping of radio active wastes in the air using satellite imagery. 19 20. Study area: The study area is the part of the Visakhapatnam district The study area is located between north latitudes 17 19 and 17 46and east longitudes 8235 and 8310 and is covered in the survey of India topographical map numbers 56H65 K/10,11,13,14,15M 65 O/1 and O/2. The area is under influence for fast development of urban agglomeration and industrial growth with mega industries for petroleum, Pharma parks . The study area is situated along the coastline from Nakkapalli mandal to Paravada mandal 20 21. 21 22. Preparation of thematic maps using survey of India toposheet and satellite imagery using visual interpretation Technique. Collection of Air samples from air sampling stations analyze the samples as per the national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) , with respect to RSPM, TSPM, NOx, Collection of collateral data from different departments and creation of attribute data of thematic maps using GIS tools. Preparation of Air quality map. Identification of Air pollution sensitivity Map and Risk area map for pollution activities. 22 23. 23 24. 24 25. Study area: The study areas of this research comprise of three (3) areas i.e the whole of Klang Valley Region, the Klang Valley Region to part of Negeri Sembilan and part of Shah Alam City in Malayasia 25 26. 26 27. 27 28. In data analysis, three 2 important tasks are carried out: A. Identification of final virtual air quality monitoring stations and B. Production of air quality maps of the study areas. 28 29. 29 30. Co concentration 30 31. PM10 Concentration 31 32. Satellite remote sensing provides complete and synoptic views of large areas in one image on a systematic basis Remote sensing technology can monitor many pollutants simultaneously Remote sensing data reduces the labour work and consumes time in mapping large areas. 32 33. One of the major limitations is spectral interference caused by other atmospheric inhabitances that are not pollution Any pollutant with a low concentration will not be detected Requires highly qualified staff, and the process is very expensive. 33 34. G. Hadjimitsis, Kyriacos Themistocleous and Argyro Nisantzi, Air pollution using earth observation satellites(2004), Cyprus University of Technology, Cyprus . ISEIS O. B.Dick a, O. Reistad , S. Hustveit , G. Grepstad , Frits Steenhuisen Nuclear Waste related mapping in North West Russia, (2004), Norwegian University of Life Sciences (science direct) 34 35. Rohayu Haron Narashid ,Wan Mohd Naim Wan Mohd ,Air pollution monitoring using Remote sensing and GIS,(2010), University of tech MARA (CSSR) Randall V. Martin, Satellite remote sensing of surface air quality,(2010),Department of Physics and Atmospheric Science, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada (ELSEIVER) S.S. ASADI, B.V.T. VASANTHA RAO, M.V. RAJU and M.ANAND SAGAR, Air pollution monitoring using remote sensing,(2011) KL university, Vijaywada(Current World Environment) 35 </p>


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