air pollution module-2. –ambient air pollution monitoring: techniques and instrumentation;...
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- Air Pollution Module-2
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- Ambient air pollution monitoring: techniques and instrumentation; monitoring stations Stack monitoring: techniques and instrumentation. Experimental analysis: gaseous and particulates; standards and limits.
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- Lecture-1 Ambient Air Pollution Monitoring
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- Introduction Most frequently occurring pollutants in an urban environment are particulate matters (suspended particulate matter i.e. SPM and respirable suspended particulate matter i.e. RSPM), carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbons (HC), sulfur dioxide (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2 ), ozone (O 3 ) and photochemical oxidants.
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- Monitoring of Air pollutants Source monitoring instruments Stack sampler (APM 620):Parameters monitored are a. Pollutants b. Velocity (Isokinetic) c. Temperature d. Pressure Source Ambient As per WHO ambient monitoring protocol SOx Essential NOx SPM HC CO Additional O 3 Point SO X NO X CO PM Line CO NOx HC RPM
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- The recommended criteria for siting the monitoring stations The site is dependent upon the use/purpose of the results of the monitoring programs. The monitoring should be carried out with a purpose of compliance of air quality standards. Monitoring must be able to evaluate impacts of new/existing air pollution sources. Monitoring must be able to evaluate impacts of hazards due to accidental release of chemicals. Monitoring data may be used for research purpose.
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- Type of ambient monitoring stations Station typeDescription Type A Downtown pedestrian exposure station- In central business districts, in congested areas, surrounding by buildings, many pedestrians, average traffic flow > 10000 vehicles per day. Location of station- 0.5 m from curve; height 2.5 to 3.5 m from the ground. Type B Downtown neighbor hood exposure stations- In central business districts but not congested areas, less high rise buildings, average vehicles < 500 vehicles per day. Typical locations like parks, malls, landscapes areas etc. Location of station- 0.5 m from curve; height 2.5 to 3.5 m from the ground. Type C Residential population exposure station In the midst of the residential areas or sub-urban areas but not in central business districts. The station should be more than 100 m away from any street. Location of station- 0.5 m from curve; height 2.5 to 3.5 m from the ground. Type D Mesoscale stations At appropriate height to collect meteorological and air quality data at upper elevation; main purpose to collect the trend of data variations not human exposure. Location roof top of tall buildings or broadcasting towers. Type E Non-urban stations In remote non-urban areas, no traffic, no industrial activity. Main purpose to monitor trend analysis. Location of station- 0.5 m from curve; height 2.5 to 3.5 m from the ground. Type F Specialized source survey stations to determine the impact on air quality at specified location by an air pollution source under scrutiny. Location of station- 0.5 m from curve; height 2.5 to 3.5 m from the ground.
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- Frequency of data collection Gaseous pollutants: continuous monitoring Particulates: once every three days
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- Number of stations Minimum number is three. The location is dependent upon the wind rose diagram that gives predominant wind directions and speed. One station must be at upstream of predominant wind direction and other two must at downstream pre dominant wind direction. More than three stations can also be established depending upon the area of coverage.
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- Components of ambient air sampling systems Four main components are: Inlet manifold Air mover collection medium flow measurement device Inlet manifold transports sampled pollutants from ambient air to collection medium or analytical device in an unaltered condition. The manifold should not be very long. Air mover provides force to create vacuum or lower pressure at the end of sampling systems. They are pumps. The collection mediums are liquid or solid sorbent or dissolving gases or filters or chamber for air analysis (automatic instruments). The flow device like rotameters measure the volume of air sampled.
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- Characteristics for ambient air sampling systems Five important characteristics are: collection efficiency sample stability recovery minimal interference understanding the mechanism of collection The first three must be 100% efficient. For e.g. for SO 2, the sorbent should be such that at ambient temperature it may remove the SO 2 from ambient atmosphere 100%. Sample must be stabled during the time between sampling and analysis. Recovery i.e. the analysis of particular pollutant must be 100% correct.
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- Basic considerations for sampling Sample must be representative in terms of time, location, and conditions to be studied. Sample must be large enough for accurate analysis. The sampling rate must be such as to provide maximum efficiency of collection. Duration of sampling must accurately reflect the fluctuations in pollution levels i.e. whether 1-hourly, 4-hourly, 6-hourly, 8-hourly, 24-hourly sampling. Continuous sampling is preferred. Pollutants must not be altered or modified during collection.
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- Errors in sampling by HVS Particulates may be lost in sampling manifold so not too long or too twisted manifold must be used. If isokinetic conditioned are not maintained, biased results may be obtained for particulate matters.
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- Advantages of HVS High flow rate at low pressure drop High particulate storage capacity No moisture regain high collection efficiency Low coast Not appreciable increase in air flow resistance Filter is 99% efficient and can collect the particles as fine as 0.3 m Absorption principle is 99% efficient in collecting the gases
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- Lecture-2 Stack Monitoring: techniques & instrumentation
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- Stack Sampling The sample collected must be representative in terms of time and location. The sample volume should be large enough to permit accurate analysis. The sampling rate must be such as to provide maximum efficiency of collection. The contaminants must not be modified or altered in the process of collection.
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- Diagrammatic view of stack sampling
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- Impingers are glass bubble tubes designed for the collection of airborne particles into a liquid medium (Figure 1). When using an air sampler, a known volume of air bubbles is pumped through the glass tube that contains a liquid specified in the method. The liquid is then analyzed to determine airborne concentrations. Figure 1: Glass Impinger
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- Selection of sampling location The sampling point should be as far as possible from any disturbing influence, such as elbows, bends, transition pieces, baffles. The sampling point, wherever possible should be at a distance of 5-10 diameters down-stream from any obstruction and 3-5 diameters up-stream from similar disturbance.
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- Size of sampling point The size of the sampling point may be made in the range of 7-10 cm, in diameter.
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- Traverse points For the sample become representative, it should be collected at various points across the stack. The number of traverse points may be selected with reference to Table 1. Table 1: Traverse Points
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- In circular stacks, traverse points are located at the center of equal annular areas across two perpendicular diameters as shown in Figure 2 In case of rectangular stacks, the area may be divided in to 12 to 25 equal areas and the centers for each area are fixed. (Figure 3) Figure 2 Figure 3
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- Isokinetic conditions Isokinetic conditions exist when the velocity in the stack V s equals the velocity at the top of the probe nozzle V n at the sample point (Figure 4). Figure 4
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- Lecture-3 Experimental analysis: Gaseous & particulates; standards & limits
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- Principles of Sampling and Analysis The components of an air pollution monitoring system include the collection or sampling of pollutants both from the ambient air and from specific sources, the analysis or measurement of the pollutant concentrations, and the reporting and use of the information collected. Emissions data collected from point sources are used to determine compliance with air pollution regulations, determine the effectiveness of air pollution control technology, evaluate production efficiencies, and support scientific research.
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- Conti. The EPA has established ambient air monitoring methods for the criteria pollutants, as well as for toxic organic (TO) compounds and inorganic (IO) compounds. The methods specify precise procedures that must be followed for any monitoring activity related to the compliance provisions of the Clean Air Act. These procedures regulate sampling, analysis, calibration of instruments, and calculation of emissions. The concentration is expressed in terms of mass per unit volume, usually micrograms per cubic meter (g/m 3 ).
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- Particulate Monitoring Particulate monitoring is usually accomplished with manual measurements and subsequent laboratory analysis. A particulate matter measurement uses grav
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