adverbial clauses erol aslankiray 2014
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Szck ve cmleler arasndaki ilikileri belirtmek iin eitli balayc yaplar kullanlr.
Bunlar yle gruplayabiliriz:
ConjunctionsTransition Words Coordinating Conjunctions
(and,but,so.)B) Correlative (paired) Conjunctions(eitheror, both.and,etc)C) Subordinating Conjunctions(because,although,whenetc)
1) Coordinating ConjuntionsBu yaplar; isim, zamir, sfat, fiil, zarf, cmle ve phrase ile ana cmle arasnda balant kurarlar.
FANBOYS yaplar genelde nne virgl (,) alarak kullanlrlar.
COORDINATING CONJUNCTIONS AND, OR, BUT ve YET, szckleri ya da cmleleri balamak iin kullanlr.
AND ayn dorultuda anlama sahip szckleri birletirir (her ikisi de olumlu ya da her ikisi de olumsuz): beautiful and clever, sunny and warm, crowded and noisy, etc.
DKKAT!!!ki Cmle and kullanlarak balandnda bu iki cmle arasnda sebep-sonu ilikisi de kurulabilir. and bu anlamda kullanldnda, ana cmle genelde EMR CMLES olur. Call him a coward and youre a dead man. (If you call him coward, he will kill you)
BUT ve YET "fakat, ama" anlamna gelir ve ztlk vurgulayan, elien szckleri birletirir: beautiful but/yet stupid, cheap but/yet good, warm but/yet windy, etc.
OR seenek sunarken "ya da" anlamnda kullanlr: sooner or later, my parents or my sister,
RNEK SORU:2007 MAYIS KPDSSeveral species of birds in Vietnam vanished during the war, . they began to reappear in 1980s and their gradual return has been encouraged by Vietnamese villagers. but b) sincec) unless
d) when e) if
2. TEKNK: , VRGL SONRASI since,unless,when,if GELMEZ!
noun + and/but/or + noun
Cats and dogs don't get along well.
adj/adv + and/but/yet/or + adj/adv
He drove the car slowly and carefully. He drove the car fast but/yet carefully. He is sleepy or bored.
infinitive/gerund + and/but/or + infinitive/gerund
I'd like to watch TV or (to) listen to some music.
I've decided to quit school and (to) find a job.
I like walking but not running.
verb + and/but/yet/or + verb
She opened her purse, took out some change and paid for the ticket.
I looked everywhere for my glasses but couldn't find them.
She will stay in a dormitory or rent a house with friends.
AND, BUT, YET (fakat), OR, NOR, SO bu yzden) ve FOR (nk) iki bamsz cmleyi balayabilir.ki tam cmleyi araya virgl koyarak arka arkaya ifade etmek mmkn deildir. Ancak birinci cmleyi noktalayp ikinci cmleye geebiliriz ya da arada bir bala kullanrz. Balalar ikinci cmlenin bana gelir ve genellikle kendilerinden nce virgl kullanlr.
And, but ve or byk harfle cmle balatabilir ancak yine kendinden nceki cmleyle balantldr.The children were playing. The parents were chatting. The children were playing and the parents were chatting. The children were playing, and the parents were chatting. The children were playing. And the parents were chatting.
Yet, so ve for bala olarak kullanldklarnda kendilerinden nce virgl gelir.
She didn't feel well, so she didn't go to work.
Kendini iyi hissetmiyordu bu yzden ie gitmedi.
She didn't go to work ,for she didn't feel well.
e gitmedi nk kendini iyi hissetmiyordu.
She didn't feel well, yet she still went to work.
Kendini iyi hissetmiyordu ama yine de ie gitti.
*** Bu yaplardan nor kendinden nceki cmlenin ya yap olarak OLUMSUZ olmasn, ya hardly, never,.. gibi OLUMSUZ yapan yaplar ya da refuse, deny,.. gibi OLUMSUZluk ifade eden fiiller iermesini gerektirir ve kendinden sonra gelen cmle DEVRK olur.
She doesnt like you, ___ does she pity you.
He doesn't like meat, nor does he like fish.
Eti sevmedii gibi bal da sevmez.
He refuses to take exercise, nor does he try to eat less.
Egzersiz yapmay reddettii gibi az yemeye de almyor.
RNEK SORU:2006 EKM DS FEN It was not obvious to scientists what the solution would be to the cosmic radiation astronauts are exposed to; .. was it obvious that there would be any solution at all.
either b) so c) and
d) but e) nor
CORRELATIVE CONJUNCTIONS Bu gruptaki balalar ikili olarak kullanlr: both... and, either...or, neither...nor, not only. but also. Bu balalar iki zne, nesne, sfat, zarf ve fiili, szck beini (phrase) ya da cmlecii (clause) balayabilir.
2) Correlative Conjunctions Bu balalarn ortak zellii paralel yaplar gerektirmeleridir.
BUT ALSOANDORNOR NOUNVERBADJECTIVEADVERBVingPREP.PHRASETO INF.NOUNVERBADJECTIVEADVERBVingPREP.PHRASETO INF.
HER ZAMAN OUL FL
NEITHER..NOREITHER.OR.NOT ONLY...BUT ALSO..
KNC BALATAN SONRA GELEN SME UYGUN FL
BOTH AND..NEITHER..NORNOT ONLY...BUT ALSO..HER ZAMAN OLUMLU CMLEde KULLANILIR
EITHER OR.HEM OLUMLUHEM OLUMSUZCMLEde KULLANILIR
NOUN or PHRASE PARALELL
Ayrca but, and, or ve yet yerine kullanlan PREPOSITIONAL PHRASE yaplarnda da durum ayndr. N.PN.PVingVingORANDBUTother thanrather thaninstead ofas well asin addition tobesidesapart fromin contrast tounlikeas opposed toHe walked slowly AS WELL AS cautiously.
ki ayr cmleyi balal tek bir cmleye dntrrken dikkat etmemiz gereken noktalar unlardr:
nce cmlelerin ortak ve farkl olan eleri belirlenir.
Farkl olan elerden birinin bana balacn birinci blm, dierinin bana ikinci blm getirilir.
Ali will come with us. Aye will come with us.
Yukardaki rnekte farkl olan eler znelerdir. Bu durumda kullanacamz bala bu iki szc birletirecektir.
Both Ali and Aye will come with us.
Not only Ali but also Aye will come with us.
She is beautiful. She is clever. (both and) She is both beautiful and clever.
She isn't tall. She isn't short. (neither...nor)
She is neither tall nor short.
Balala elde ettiimiz yapnn cmle iindeki yeri balad enin yeriyle ayndr.
Yani iki zneyi baladysa cmlenin banda,
iki nesneyi baladysa yklemden sonra yer alr.
Ali will help me or Aye will help me. (subject + subject)
Either Ali or Aye will help me.
I didn't buy a shirt. I didn't buy a skirt. (object + object)
I bought neither a shirt nor a skirt.
Both ... and iki zneyi balyorsa fiil daima ouldur.
Dier balalarla ykleme yakn olan zne yani ikinci zne temel alnr.
Eer ikinci zne tekilse tekil bir fiil, oulsa oul bir fiil kullanlr.
Both my parents and my sister are coming tomorrow.
Not only my parents but also my sister is coming tomorrow.
Neither my colleagues nor the manager approves of the plan.
Either the teacher or the students have made a mistake.
Both ... and Trkeye hem ... hem de biiminde evrilir ve olumlu cmlelerde kullanlr.
Both the driver and the passengers were badly injured.Hem src hem de yolcular ar yaraland.Yesterday I both cleaned the house and went to the cinema. Dn hem evi temizledim hem de sinemaya gittim.
Not only ... but also da olumlu cmlelerle kullanlr. Both ... and den daha vurgulu bir ifadedir. Not only the driver but also the passengers were injured. (Sadece src deil yolcular da yaraland.)I not only cleaned the house but also went to the cinema.Sadece evi temizlemekle kalmadm, sinemaya da gittim.
Neither ... nor Trkeye ne ... ne de biiminde evrilir. Kendisi olumsuz bir yap olduu iin olumlu fiille kullanlr ancak cmlenin anlam olumsuzdur.
She didn't study. She didn't watch TV.
She neither studied nor watched TV. (Ne ders alt ne de televizyon izledi.)
Either ... or, ya ...ya da anlamndadr. Genellikle olumlu cmlede kullanlr. Olumsuz cmlede kullanld zaman neither ... nor ile ayn anlam verir.
She can't either speak or walk. (She can neither speak nor walk.)Ne konuabiliyor ne de yryebiliyor.
Not only ... but also iki cmleyi balyorsa, ve Not only Cmle banda kullanlyorsa not only'nin bal bulunduu cmle devrik, ikinci cmle dz olur.
The hotel was marvellous. The hotel was cheap.
The hotel was not only marvellous but also cheap.
Not only was the hotel marvellous, but it was also cheap.
Not only., but also dizilimleriNot only but also kalbnda only yerine just, merely, solely, simply zarflar da kullanlr. Not only,but (also)simplymerelysolelyjust ,but,as well / too.
RNEK SORU:2005 MART DS SALIKHealth is not merely the absence of disease and infirmty, . complete physical, mental and social well-being.
as for b) as well as c) as if
d) including e) but also
Dikkat! Not only but also yapsn Not.but ile kartrmaynz!Not . but yapsnda HER K EYLEM DE GEREKLEMEZ!SADECE .butSONRASI GEREKLER!!!
Ancak Not only.but also da K EYLEM DE GEREKLER!!!
She went abroad not to have a vacation but to improve her English.
(O, yurtdna tatil iin deil, ngilizcesini gelitirmek iin gitti.)
She went abroad not only to have a vacation but also to improve her English.
(O, yurtdna sadece tatil yapmak iin deil, ngilizcesini gelitirmek iin de gitti.)
RNEK SORU: 2003 YDSMany ordinary people dont realize that fat is not digested in the stomach, ____ in the small intestine.
although b) but c) because
d) but also e) while
EXERCISE: Combine the following sentences. Use both ... and.The Island of Grenada has unspoilt beaches. It also has beautiful forests.
Agatha Christie wrote murder mysteries. Colin Dexter wrote murder mysteries. The Island of Grenada has both unspoilt beaches and beautiful forests. Both Agatha Christie and Colin Dexter wrote murder mysteries .
Use not only ... but also.The new library will contain twice as many books. The new library will provide computer facilities. The new library will not only contain twice as many books but also provide computer facilities FARKLI ELERFL ve NESNELER
The Chef arrived late. Two of the waiters arrived late.
Use neither ... nor.He didn't file the reports properly. He didn't fill out the forms correctly.
Not only the chef but also two of the waiters arrived late. He neither filed the reports properly nor filled out the forms correctly.
Use either ... or.We'll replace the item, or well refund your money, whichever you prefer.
The road is closed. The workmen might be repairing it, or an accident might have occurred. We'll either replace the item or refund your money, whichever you prefer. Either the workmen are repairing it, or an accident has occurred.
Choose the correct one in parentheses.Either the director or the actors (was / were) not professional enough for a Shakespeare play.
Both the sailors and the captain (is / are) ready for a holiday.
Neither the builders nor the architect (understand / understands) the plan.
Neither the architect nor the builders (think / thinks) a glass floor is possible.
Both their determination and their hard work (has / have) contributed to their success.
Either the brakes or the steering (is / are) causing my car to judder when I'm driving downhill.
Either our children or the boy from next door (has / have) pulled up all the flowers in our garden.
Not only the population of France but also lorry drivers in England (is / are) demonstrating against the high price of fuel.
Both lack of sponsorship and a low rate of attendance (has / have) added to the Millennium Dome's failure.
Bir yan cmleyi temel cmleye balayan when, before, because, although gibi szckler subordinating conjunctions diye isimlendirilir.
Balacn bulunduu cmle (adverbial clause) temel cmleden nce ya da sonra gelebilir.
Adverbial clause temel cmlenin nnde yer alrsa iki cmle arasnda virgl kullanlr.
Temel cmleden sonra geliyorsa genellikle virgl kullanlmaz.YAN CMLE BALALARI
YAN CMLE TEMEL CMLE , Although it was raining, she went out for a walk. TEMEL CMLE YAN CMLE She went out for a walkalthough it was raining.
Because she was tired, she went straight to bed.
She went straight to bed because she was tired.
After she made a phone call, she left home.
She left home after she made a phone call.
Bu balalar, cmleler arasnda kurduu iliki bakmndan gruplandrarak yle sralayabiliriz:
after, before, by the time (that),until / till, since / ever sinceas long ashardy/barely/scarcely..whenNo sooner..than
while, as, when, whenever,once, the momentas soon as, immediately, now (that)
as far as
in order that
for the purpose that
for fear that
Concession and Contrast
althoughthougheven thoughwhilewhereasmuch as however + adj. /adv. no matter + question word
If, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing (that), provided (that), in case, as/so long as, suppose (that), supposing (that)
such (a/an) + adj. + noun + that
so + adj. /adv. that
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF TIME After (-den sonra)After I finish/have finished this report, I will go out for lunch.
After I finished/had finished the report, I went out for lunch.
,YAN CMLE TEMEL CMLE V1 have-has V3Will be going to
Before (-meden nce)
Before I go out for lunch, I will finish this report.
Before I went out for lunch, I finished / had finished the report.
,YAN CMLE TEMEL CMLE V1will be going to
V2V2 Had V3
****DKKAT****Before balacnn yan cmlesinde NEGATF YAPI GELMEZ!!!!
,YANCMLE TEMEL CMLE NOT,
HARDLY..Yan cmlede not, never, hardly..gibi negatif anlam ifadeleri varsa BEFORE ARETLEME!!!
when (-diinde, -dii zaman)When I got home, they were eating dinner.
When I got home, they ate dinner.
When I got home, they had eaten dinner.
,YAN CMLE TEMEL CMLE
Was/were VingV2 Had V3
When I get home, they will be eating dinner.
When I get home, they will eat dinner.
When I get home, they will have eaten dinner.
,YAN CMLE TEMEL CMLE
will be V ingwill + V1will have V3
When I finish / have finished this report, I will go out for lunch.
When I finished / had finished the report, I went out for lunch.When + V1 / have-has V3, will / be going toWhen + V2 / had V3 ,V2
while, as, just as (-iken)My friend will look after my plants while I am on holiday.
They were playing cards as I was working hard on my thesis.
The alarm was activated just as / as / when the woman pressed the red button.
ANA CMLE ile ZARF CMLESndeki eylemler E ZAMANLI SE when deil, WHILE KULLANILIR !
I watched the TV while Fulya cooked dinner for us.
E ZAMANLI EYLEMLER WHEN KULLANILMAZ!!!
by the time (-e kadar, -e gelindiinde, -den nce)Bir eylemin dier eylemden daha nce gerekletiini ya da gerekleeceini belirtmek iin kullanlr.
By the time he comes back, we will have finished the work. By the time he comes back, it will be too late. By the time he came back, we had finished the work. By the time he came back, it was too late.
By the time + V1 Will have + V3 Simple Future (with be)
By the time + V2
had + V3 had been +Ving
until, till (-e kadar, -e dein)She will wait for me until/till I finish/have finished my work.
She waited for me until/till I finished/had finished my work.
I had never heard of that author until/till you told me about her.
UNUTMAYINIZ!!!before, after, till, until yaplar hem bala hem de edat olarak kullanlabilirler.
Dier bir deyile kendilerinden sonra hem bir cmlecik hem de bir isim / isim bei alabilirler.
S V ONOUNNOUN PHRASE
Since Ever Since (-den beri)The old man has been receiving a psychological treatment (ever) since he lost his family in a car accident.
(ever) Since+V 2
have has V3have has been Ving
as soon as, once, the moment, immediately (-r.-mez)As soon as / Once / The moment / Immediately I saw him, I understood that something was wrong.
As soon as I finished / had finished my work, I went out.
As soon as I finish / have finished my work, I will go out.
as long as, so long as(mddete, srece)I won't forgive him as/so long as I live.
I never bought anything from that shop as/so long as I lived there.
whenever, every time(her..-diinde, ne zaman ..-se)Whenever you get into a trouble, you are always calling me!
I greeted (used to greet) him whenever/every time I saw him
the first time, the second time, the next time, the last time, etc.The first time I went to zmir, I attended YDS ACADEMY English Courses.
The next time I go there, I won't stay at the same hotel.
The last time I went to Aydn, I visited many friends.
now (that) (..-dna gre/ mademki)Now that we have finished our work, we can go out for a walk.
Now that school is over, he can start to look for a job.Now that SADECE V1 ve HAVE - HAS V3 ile KULLANILIR!
no sooner ... than, hardly/scarcely/barely ... whenI had no sooner received his letter than he himself arrived.
I had scarcely / hardly received his letter when he himself arrived
DKKAT!Bu yaplar cmle banda kullanldklarnda DEVRK YAPI olarak devamlarnda BR YARDIMCI FL ALIRLAR. I had hardly fallen asleep when a crash woke me. (Tam uykuya dalmtm ki bir kaza beni uyandrd.)
fallen asleep when a crash woke me
when CMLE TAMAMLAMA SORULARINI SEVER
***TEKNK***Paraphrasing ve translation sorularnda; No soonerthanHardlyScarcely whenBarely
as soon as
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES SHOWING CAUSE AND EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS
Neden-Sonu ilikisi aklayan balalarBecauseSinceAsAs/so long asInasmuch asSeeing that, Seeing asOn the grounds thatNow thata clause
SVO SVO ,
On account of
sinceasbecauseseeing thatseeing asinasmuch asShe couldnt understand what he saidit was very noisy.
RESULT MAIN CLAUSE
REASON ADV. CLAUSESVO
+ SVO BALA
Because she was ill, she couldn't go to school.
Because of her illness, she couldn't go to school.
(BECAUSE OF + NOUN PHRASE)
As prices rise dramatically, it's difficult to make ends meet.
(AS+SVO)Owing to dramatically rising prices, it's difficult to make ends meet.
(OWING TO + NOUN PHRASE)
It was a good decision inasmuch as it worked for you. (Senin iine yaradna gre bu iyi bir karard.)
Seeing that / Seeing as we need to arrive there by nine oclock, we had better leave at six.(Saat 9a kadar oraya varmamz gerektiine gre saat 6da ayrlsak iyi ederiz)
They oppose the bill on the grounds that it is too restrictive.
( Kanun tasarsna ok kstlayc olduu gerekesiyle kar kyorlar.)
Now (that) you are settled, why dont you take up a serious study?
Yerletiine gre neden biraz ciddi almaya balamyorsun?
Now (that) yapsnda sonra past gelmez. Genelde V1 / have-has V3 gelir!Now (that) + V1 veya Now (that) + have has V3
***TEKNK***Cmle tamamlama sorularnda seeneklerde Tense Uyumu aranmadan nce AS, BECAUSE, SINCE, cmlelerinin iki tarafnda AYNI ZNE KULLANIMI ARANMALIDIR!
As SinceBecause,X X AYNI ZNE
Because ofDue to Owing to On account of In view of Thanks to As a result of As a consequence of
-d iin-den dolay-nn yznden-sayesinde-nn sonucu olarak + NP/NC/Ving+ SVO Cmle iindeki yerleri ve noktalama iaretleri ile kullanmlar X_______________________ , _______________________________________________ X ________________________
Because ofDue to Owing to On account of In view of Thanks to As a result of As a consequence of
+SVO Cmle iindeki yerleri ve noktalama iaretleri ile kullanmlar X_______________________ , _______________________________________________ X ________________________the fact that
CONCESSION AND CONTRAST(ZITLIK BALALARI)
Kartlk bildiren balalar unlardr: although, though, even though, while, whereas, much as, however + adj./adv., no matter + question word
Bu balalar, belirtilen bir durumdan beklenmeyen bir sonucun ktn ifade etmemizi salar.
Because she studied hard, she passed the exam. (expected result)
Although she studied hard, she didn't pass the exam. (unexpected result)
Kartlk bildiren balalar, neden-sonu ilikisi bildiren balalarda da olduu gibi, tense uyumu gerektirmez.
Although it was cold yesterday, it is quite warm today.
Although, though, even thoughBu balalarn de ayn anlam verir. Even though biraz daha vurgulu bir anlatmdr. Balacn bal bulunduu cmle temel cmleden nce ya da sonra gelebilir.
AlthoughThough Even thoughalthoughthough even though, she is quite good at music.She doesn't want to be a musicianShe is quite good at musicshe doesn't want to be a musician
Though iki bamsz cmleyi birletirmek iin de kullanlabilir.
Bu kullanmyla though, "but, yet" anlamn verir ve genellikle ikinci cmlenin sonunda kullanlr ama ikinci cmlenin banda da yer alabilir.
I didn't like the film, though I liked its background music.
I didn't like the film; I liked its background music, though.
I didn't like the film, but/yet I liked its background music. (Filmi beenmedim ama fon mziini beendim.)
AlthoughThoughEven thoughWhereasEven if While
S V O
in spite of irrespective of regardless of notwithstandingDespite
Although he tried hard, he couldn't persuade his father.
Much as he tried, be couldn't persuade his father.
(ok urat halde babasn ikna edemedi.)
As, kartlk bildiren bir bala olarak, bir sfat ya da zarftan sonra kullanlr ve kendisini bir cmle izler.
Ayn yapda though da kullanlr.
Adj. / Adv. + as / though + S V O
312 KURALIAlthough she is rich, she doesnt share her prosperity.123rich, as she is she doesnt share her prosperity.TRANSLATION ve RESTATEMENT SORULARINI SEVER
ALTHOUGH, THOUGH, EVEN THOUGH+SVO = adj/adv+AS / THOUGH + SVO
Hard as I try, my cooking is not so good as yours. Hard though I try, my cooking is not so good as yours. Though / Although I try hard, my cooking is not so good as yours.
ok uratm halde benim yemeklerim seninkiler kadar iyi olmuyor.
However + adj./adv.no matter + question wordHowever late it is, you can call me for help.
No matter how late it is, you can call me for help.
Ne kadar ge olursa olsun, yardm iin beni arayabilirsin.
You must know how to stand alone however many friends you have.
You must know how to stand alone no matter how many friends you have.
Ne kadar ok arkadan olursa olsun kendi bana ayakta durmay bilmelisin.
No matter + question word yapsnn verdii anlam wherever, whatever, whoever gibi szcklerle de verebiliriz.
No matter where you go, keep some money in reserve.
Wherever you go, keep some money in reserve.
Nereye gidersen git, kenarda biraz para bulundur.
No matter what you do, don't join a street gang.
Whatever you do, don't join a street gang.
Ne yaparsan yap ama bir genlik etesine karma.
No matter who has taken my book, I want it back at once.
Whoever has taken my book, I want it back at once.
Kitabm kim aldysa hemen geri vermesini istiyorum.
Whereas, While, Whilst (oysa, -iken, halbuki)Bu balalar iki taraf arasndaki dorudan bir ztl ifade eder.
While WhereasWhilst X + V + OY + V + O
FARKLI ZNETEKN - CMLE TAMAMLAMA!!!
He is around sixty ,whereas his wife looks about thirty.
Aylin is very self-confident while Mert is shy and quiet.
RNEK SORU: 2003 MAYIS KPDS Geographical Information System tools provide specialized functions for spatial data input, processing, analysis and output, ____________________ Database Management System tools provide more advanced functions for storing and managing large spatial databases.
that b) due to c) while d) whethere) in that
FARKLI ZNELER X Y TEKN (TAM ZITLIK-ZNE-TARAF ZITLII)
RNEK SORU: 2007 MART DS SOSYAL Research evidence suggests that, in their games, girls show preference for home-centered interests _______ boys drawn to more naughty and dangerous themes and plots.
a) unlessb) when c) as thoughd) wherease) now that
zne Ztl Direct Contrast
so that, in order that, for the purpose that, for fear that, lest
So that ve in order that ayn anlama sahiptir ve kullanm kurallar da ayndr.
So that / in order that temel cmle ile yan cmle arasnda tense uyumas gerektirir.
Main clause am/is/are doing do/does be going to will do have/has done
+so that +Subordinate Clause do/does am/is/are be going to can will will be able tomay
Temel cmle ile yan cmlede kullanabileceimiz tense ve modal' lar:Present / Future
Main clause V2 Had V3
+so that +Subordinate Clause wouldcould would be able to might
She is studying very bard this year so that she can pass the university exam.
She went to zmir so that she could see her friends.
I want to finish all the work today so that I will be free tomorrow.(olsun diye) (..olmas iin) (..ki bylece)
Lest "for fear that, in case" anlamndadr ve genellikle should ile kullanlr.
Temel cmlenin Tense' ine uygun olarak Simple Present ve Simple Past tense de kullanlabilir.
Lest Trkeye olumsuz olarak evrilir.
We all spoke in quiet voices lest we should wake the baby.
Bebei uyandrmayalm diye hepimiz alak sesle konutuk.
We all spoke in quiet voices for fear that we might wake the baby.
Bebei uyandrrz korkusuyla hepimiz alak sesle konutuk.
SO THATe DKKATPURPOSE So that + can-may-willAS A RESULT ,so thatRESULTso_________ that I studied so that I could pass.Snf geebilmek iin altmI studied ,so that I could pass.altm ve sonu olaraksnf geebildim. I studied so hard that I could pass.ylesine ok altm ki snf geebildim.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSES OF MANNER (DURUM BALALARI)
Bu zarflar bir olayn nasl olduunu ya da eylemin nasl yapldn anlatrken kullanlan zarf tmceleri (Adverbial Clause of Manner) olarak adlandrlr.
(Just) As: -d gibi(Just) as raiway bridges were the great structural symbols of the 19th century, so highway bridges became engineering embles of the 20th century.
(Just) as raiway bridges were the great structural symbols of the 19th century, so did highway bridges become engineering embles of the 20th century.
(Just) as raiway bridges were the great structural symbols of the 19th century, highway bridges become engineering embles of the 20th century.So + normal cmleSo + devrik cmleSo almadan kullanm
RNEK SORU:2008 EKM DS SOSYAL_____English contains a vast lexical inheritance from Latin, Persian has absorbed a great number of Arabic loanwords.
As long as b) Because c) Even ifd) Just as e) Whether
As if / as though: gibi; sanki; -m gibiGerek Durum:Tercme: gibi Tense: Olayn gerek zaman rnek:Take an umbrella. It looks as if it is going to rain. -emsiye al. Yamur yaacak gibi grnyor.
Gerek D Durum:Tercme: sanki m gibi Tense: ONE TENSE BACK rnek:
He has broken the vase, buthe behaves as if nothing happened.
Vazoyu krd ama hibirey olmam gibi davranyor.
V2ONE TENSE BACK
DKKAT!!!!As if / As though yapsnn bal bulunduu tarafta be fiili kullanlmsa gerek d durum anlam ile olsa bile had been yaps deil; were yaps kullanlr.
They listened to him as if he were a king. had been
As if / as though yaplarndan nce gelen fiiller:SeemLookAppearBehave Act TreatDescribe Feel
As if As though
Transition, bir dnceden baka bir dnceye geii salayan szck ya da szck grubudur.
Transition ikinci cmlenin yani sonu cmlesinin bana gelir ve iki cmle yer deitiremez.
CONTRAST: ztlk(BEKLENT TERS ZITLIK)Concessive Contrast However: ancak, ama, yine deStill: yine deEven so: yine de , byle olsa bileNevertheless: ama- yine deNonetheless: ama-yine deAll the same: buna ramen
The first part of the essay was easy; however, the second took hours. (lk ksm kolayd, ancak ikinci ksm saatler srd.)
He had studied hard. Even so, he failed. (O, ok alt, ama yine de baarsz oldu.)
We disliked each other ; nevertheless, we agreed. (Birbirimizi sevmiyoruz, ama yine de anlatk.)
Direct Contrast: Conversely: dier yandan, aksine On the other hand: dier yandan In contrast : oysaki, dier yandan By contrast: oysaki, dier yandan
Gamze does whatever her teacher assigns; on the other hand, Erol doesnt.
(Gamze, retmeni ne dev verirse yapar, oysaki Erol yapmaz / yle deil.)
Turkeys economy has expanded enormously, while Spains, in/by contrast, declined.
(Trkiyenin ekonomisi ar derece byd, aksine spayannki d gsterdi.)
Bu yaplarla ayn anlam olan fakat kullanm farkl olan yaplar:
Unlike her sister, she is tall. (Kzklardeinin aksine, o uzun boylu.)
In contrast to office workers, the working hours of farmers are quite flexible. (Ofis alanlarnn aksine, iftilerin alma saatleri olduka esnektir.) unlike in contrast to/withcontrary to+ NP , NC, Ving (-nn aksine)
Therefore: bu yzden, bundan dolay, dolaysylaThus: bu yzden, bundan dolay, dolaysylaHence: bu yzden, bundan dolay, dolaysylaAccordingly: bu yzden, bundan dolay, dolaysylaConsequently: bu yzden, bundan dolay, dolaysylaAs a consequence : sonu olarakAs a result: sonu olarak*Thereby: ylelikle, o suretle, bylece
****bu yaplardan thereby devamnda CMLE ALMAZ. Ya and balacndan sonra ya devamnda Ving alarak ya da cmle ba HAR cmlede herhangi bir yerde kullanlr.
She hadnt studied, and thereby failed. (O, almad ve bu yzden baarsz oldu.)She hadnt studied. She thereby failed.
***TEKNK***Herhangi bir cmlede virglden sonra herhangi bir sonu zarf varsa, bu zarf devamnda Ving ile devam eder; bu tr durumlar iin formlmz : ________, sonu zarf + Ving
RNEK SORU: 2007 MAYIS KPDSThe British govenment____ details of the next stage of its genetically modified cropfield trials, thus ___ off a now familiar cycle of debate and demonstration.
has released / settingwill release / to set would have released / having set is releasing / to have set released / to be set
ADDITION EKLEMEAlsoBesidesFurtherMoreoverFurthermoreIn additionWhats moreDahas stelik
The whole report is badly written. Moreover, its inaccurate.
The hotel was not comfortable; besides, it was not reasonably priced. Otel konforlu deildi, stne stlk fiyat da makul deildi.
Im cold, and Im also hungry and tired. dm ve ayrca am ve yorgunum.
TIMEAt first / initially: ilk olarak Afterwards: daha sonraIn the meantime: bu sre iinde, bu aradaMeanwhile: bu arada
We had the tea, and afterwards we sat in the garden for a while.
At first, I thought he was joking but then I realized he wasnt.
For instanceFor exampleTo illustrateAs an exampleAs an illustrationTo exemplify
Unemployment problem is getting more and more serious. In the electronics industry, for instance, 5000 people were made redundant.
- sizlik problemi giderek ciddileiyor. rnein, elektronik endstrisinde 5000 kii iini kaybetti.
***UNUTMAYINIZ!***ncesindeki isme rnek vermek iin such as, like yaplarnn yan sra including edat da kullanlabilir.
Turkey has a number of problems, including heavy traffic and over population. Trkiyenin youn trafik ve ar nfus gibi bir ok problemi var.
PARTICULARIZATION:ZELE NDRGEMEIn particular
On the whole, I love music, especially rock.
-Genel olarak mzii severim, zellikle de rock mzii.
That is: yaniNamely: yani In other words: baka bir deyileThat is to say: yani To put it in a different way: baka bir deyile To put it in another way: baka bir deyile
By the same token,
In the same way,
EMPHASIS: vurgulamaIn fact,
As a matter of fact,
TRANSITION:konuyu deitirmek iin- e gelince..ile ilgili olarak /-e dairAs for When it comes to With regard to With respect to In case ofaboutas to concerningregardingas regards pertaining to
SUMMATION-CONCLUSIONzetleme Sonu karmaIn summary zet olarak, ksacasIn brief / In short ksacas - ksacaIn conclusionSonu olarakTo sum upzet olarak All in allzet olarak, herey hesaba kattmzda
EXCEPTIONHari tutmaExcept thatSave thatExcept (for)ButSavingApart from..den bakaharidndaExcept that But + SVO Save that All my students but Deniz were in the class. Deniz hari tm rencilerim snftayd. Apart from the salary / Salary apart, its not a good job. Maa dnmezsek, iyi bir i deil.
ByViaThroughWith the help ofBy means of
araclylavastasylaThe thieves escaped by means of that plan. Hrszlar o plan araclyla katlar.
Irrespective of =Regardless of
-e baklmaksznTEKNKeviri sorularndaNo matter + QW veya ever word ler aranr.Regardless of what they say ..Irrespective of what they say ..Whatever they say ..No matter what what they say ..
REDUCTION of ADVERBIAL CLAUSES to MODIFYING PHRASES
Bir zarf u biimde ksaltabiliriz.
Ksaltma yapabilmenin temel koulu, yan cmle ile temel cmledeki znenin ayn olmasdr.
zneler farkl ise ksaltma yapamayz.
Ksaltma yapabileceimiz balalar ve ksaltma biimleri yledir:
After, before, whileActive: While I was reading a book last night, I fell asleep.
While reading a book last night, I fell asleep.
Reading a book last night, I fell asleep.
Active: After we ate / had eaten dinner, we went out for a walk.
After eating / After having eaten dinner, we went out for a walk.
Having eaten dinner, we went out for a walk.
Passive: After he was / had been promoted, he became more interested in his job.
After being / having been promoted, he became more interested in his job.
Having been promoted, he became more interested in his job.
Passive: While it was being carried, the table got broken.
While being carried, the table got broken.
Active: Before she came to this city, she lived in the country.
Before coming to this city, she lived in the country.
Passive: Before she was elected Prime Minister, she worked as a university teacher.
Before being elected Prime Minister, she worked as a university teacher.
(Note:Ksaltma yaparken "before" atlamaz.)
WhenWhen, arka arkaya yaplm eylemleri ifade eden iki cmleyi balyorsa; active cmlede when + clause yerine on /upon + doing kullanlr.
When she finished her report, she left the office.
On/upon finishing her report, she left the office.
Passive cmlede ya da "be" fiilinin asl fiil olduu cmlede, zne ve "be" fiili atlr:
when + past participle/a noun kullanlr.
When he was a young man, he was very ambitious.
When a young man, he was very ambitious.
When they are used too often, sedative drugs may cause addiction.
When used too often, sedative drugs may cause addiction.
When, baz cmlelerde "while" anlamnda kullanlr.
Yani temel cmle ile yan cmledeki eylemler ayn zamanldr.
Bu durumda ksaltma, when + doing biiminde yaplr.
When you are travelling abroad, make sure you have traveller's cheques with you.
When travelling abroad, make sure you have traveller's cheques with you.
UNTIL SINCE Until, genellikle passive cmlelerde ksaltlabilir.
Prepositions must be studied until they are learnt by heart.
Prepositions must be studied until learnt by heart
Since, "...den beri" anlamndaysa since + doing biiminde ksaltlr.
Since I came to this city. I hare lived in the same house.
Since coming to this city. I have lived in the same house.
Neden - sonu ilikisi bildiren clause'larda as, since, because gibi balalar atlarak doing / having done kullanlr.Because she is married now, she has more responsibilities. Being married now, she has more responsibilities.Since she was tired, she went to bed early. Being tired, she went to bed early.
Eer adverbial clause'daki eylem temel cmledeki eylemden nce gereklemise having done kullanlr.
Because I sprained my ankle yesterday, I now have difficulty walking.
Having sprained my ankle yesterday, I now have difficulty walking.
Because I had sprained my ankle, I could hardly walk.
Having sprained my ankle, I could hardly walk.
Adverbial clause'da be + adjective kullanlmsa, bu yapy being + adjective ya da sadece adjective biiminde ksaltabiliriz.
Because she is responsible for opening the office, she has to be there early.
Being responsible for opening the office, she has to be there early.
Responsible for opening the office, she has to be there early.
Olumsuz cmlelerde not doing/not having done kullanlr.Because I don't know her phone number, I can't call her.
Not knowing her phone number, I can't call her.
Because she hadn't slept well the night before, she felt tired in the morning.
Not having slept well the night before, she felt tired in the morning.
Neden-sonu ilikisi bildiren cmlelerde, temel cmleyle yan cmlenin zneleri farklyken de ksaltma yapmak mmkndr.
Ancak ksaltmada her iki cmlenin de znesini belirtmek gerekir.
Because our car is broken-down, we have been travelling to work by bus since last week.
Our car being broken-down, we have been travelling to work by bus since last week.
As the weather was cold, we had to cancel the picnic.
The weather being cold, we had to cancel the picnic.
Koul cmlesi oluturan balalardan if, unless, as if, ve whether...or ksaltlm yapyla kullanlabilir.
If they were collected together, his poems would fill a volume.
If collected together, his poems would fill a volume.
Unless this case is explained properly, it will continue to confuse people.
Unless explained properly, this case will continue to confuse people.
She was speaking strangely, as if she was trying to conceal something from us.
She was speaking strangely, as if trying to conceal something from us.
ADVERBIAL CLAUSE KISALTMA TABLOSU1- V ing , zne : E zamanl AKTF2- V3 / Being V3.. , zne.. : E zamanl PASF3-HavingV3... , zne.. : Farkl zamanl AKTF4-Having beenV3... , zne.. : Farkl zamanl PASF
Change the adverbial clauses to modifying phrases.Unless they are protected by security guards, empty factories usually get vandalised.
Unless protected by security guards, empty factories...
While she was working as a representative for a holiday company, she learnt a bit of Spanish.
While working as a representative for a holiday company, she learnt...
After we had been robbed, we just wanted to fly home as quickly as possible.
After being robbed, we...
He had better find a new job before he leaves his present employment.
He had better and a new job before leaving his present employment.
If it is kept under control, diabetes doesn't affect one's daily life dramatically.
If kept under control, diabetes...
CONTINUING THE SAME IDEA Herhangi bir konuda belirttiimiz bir gre ilave yaparken "also" anlamnda moreover, furthermore, in addition ve besides kullanrz.
Bu szckler "ayrca, yan sra, ilaveten" anlamlarn verir.
Bu yaplar kullanrken dikkat etmemiz gereken nokta, nce belirttiimiz ifade ile elimeyen grler ilave etmemizdir.Yani bir eyin iyi bir zelliini belirtmisek, bir baka iyi zelliini ekleyebiliriz.
I want to rent that house.It's very large, with four rooms.
Moreover, Furthermore,In addition,Besides,
it has a wonderful sea view.
Running a big car has certain disadvantages.First of all, it's expensive to run because it uses more petrol than the smaller models;moreover, furthermore,in addition,besides,it's difficult to park.
In addition to ve besides, preposition olarak kullanlr ve kendilerinden sonra isim gelir.
In addition to / Besides her beauty, she has intelligence and charm.
In addition to / besides + noun / Verb ing
When the fire alarm sounded, we left the building immediately, without taking our coats. It was raining and, ........ we got absolutely soaking wet.
A) regardless B) otherwise C) nevertheless D) on the contrary E) consequently
The footballer was hired by the Spanish club his performance during the European Cup.
A) in case B) even though C) besides D) on account ofE) in addition to
He is a member of the same political party, .. he doesnt agree with the minister on this occasion.
A) as B) for C) yet D) such E) so
....... how secure you make your house, thieves can always find a way to break in.
A) No matter B) Whatever C) Nevertheless D) Otherwise
E) As though
......... measures are taken, Formula One car racing will, by its nature, remain a dangerous sport.
A) So that B) Because
C) WhateverD) As though
E) No matter
Despite having told the waiter that we were vegetarians, ......... .
A) he continued to recommend; us dishes containing meat
B) we were only offered a rather disgusting green salad
C) he said the chef could make us something special
D) he told us they had a good selection of meat-free dishes
E) we wouldn't be tipping him due to the poor service
Unlike the head chef, he thinks adding fresh cream to tomato soup makes it more delicious.Both himself and the head chef are of the opinion that tomato soup tastes better when a little fresh cream is added.
B) In his opinion, which is contrary to the head chefs, the flavour of tomato soup is enhanced by adding fresh cream.
C) Although be added fresh cream to the tomato soup to enhance the flavour, the head chef didn't like it.
D) The head chef advised him to add some fresh cream to the tomato soup, but he doesn't think this will improve the flavour of the dish.
E) As any head chef will tell you, you can improve tomato soup by adding some fresh cream just before serving.
"Kk Kadnlar"n yazar Louisa May Alcott, Amerikan Sava srasnda hemire olarak grev yapmtr.
Louisa May Alcott was both an author, writing "Little Women", and a nurse, serving in the American Civil War.
B) "Little Women" was written by Louisa May Alcott, a former nurse from the American Civil War.
C) Louisa May Alcott was the author of "Little Women", which was about a nurse serving during the American Civil War.
D) Louisa May Alcott's novel "Little Women" told the story of a nurse who served during the American Civil War.
E) Louisa May Alcott, the author of "Little Women", served as a nurse during the American Civil War.
........... while St Bernard is an excellent ski resort for competent skiers.
A) There are some very exciting runsB) I had only been skiing on two other occasionsC) Rock climbing has become quite popular with studentsD) She learnt rock climbing in Germany last year E) St Moritz is one of the best resorts for beginners