adverbial clauses; adverbial clauses of time
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ADVERBIAL CLAUSESAdverbial Clauses of Time
ADVERBIAL CLAUSESSame function as adverbial phrases in a simple sentenceAdverbial clauses = AdjunctsModify the verb of the main clauseSubordinators connect the main clause with the adverbial clauseE.g. Her goldfish died when she was young.
Adverbial Clauses of TimeRelate the time of the situation denoted in the main clauseCan be FINITE and NON-FINITEExpress time of the actionTime can be: FIXED_TIME, DURATION OR FREQUENCY. Time relations can be simultaneous, one action may follow or precede the other, etc.
The subordinator WHENVery frequentActions - Either simultaneous or follow each otherSimultaneous, e.g. You seem very happy when you help other people. Follow, e.g. She felt happy when she saw her friend.
My father was shaving when the doorbell ran.The children screamed when they saw a snake in the classroom.
When a coordinator When = and thene.g. I approached the car when I saw its door broken.When introducing a noun clausee.g. When the bus arrives is not known yet.The subordinator when can introduce a clause in an NP postM function; The case when the headword denotes timee.g. The moment when I saw you will never be forgotten.
Adverbs of timeDirectly, immediately, instantly, once may function as subordinators of time when the subordinator WHEN is dropped,e.g. We will go out to dinner once the movie ends.e.g. Directly he was paid, he went out shopping. e.g. She returned immediately she heard the news.
The subordinator WHenever
At whatever time, no matter when, etc.
e.g. Whenever I study Math, I get confused and upset.
The subordinator whileDuring the time that, at the same time that denotes a continuous activitye.g. While you wait, we will detail your car.Sometimes While equal to thoughe.g. While I fully understand your point of view, I also have some sympathy with Michaels. While can sometimes be equal to the coordinator BUTe.g. Tom is very extrovert and confident while Katys shy and quiet.
The subordinator ASIntroduces a clause the action in progressThe action in the main clause simultaneousas = when = while e.g. He gets more attractive as he gets older.Gradual development of a process, e.g. As she was growing up, she became more and more beautiful.
The action of the main clause can follow the action in the subordinate clause. AS is usually premodified by the adverb just.
e.g. The building collapsed just as he arrived.
The subordinator as long asAlmost equal to while
e.g. We can sit here as long as we wait.
The subordinators till and untilup to the time whene.g. Fry the onions till they start to color. e.g. I cant pay my bills until my paycheck comes.
The subordinator sincefrom the time that, after the time that
e.g. John has been a student in college since he was 17 years old.
The subordinator afterThe action of the subordinate clause precedes the action of the main clause
e.g. After I ate dinner, I took a walk.
The subordinator beforeThe action of the main clause precedes the action of the subordinate clause of time
e.g. Before Melissa went to class, she studied for the quiz.
NON-FINITE CLAUSES AS ADVERBIAL CLAUSESGerundial ClausesParticipial ClausesPerfect ParticiplesThe subordinators when and while used with participial clauses of time
Gerundial Clauses of timeIntroduced by the prepositions:on Emphasize an idea on an immediate succession, e.g. On arriving home, everybody surprised him. in - show the time of the action in the main clause, e. g. I enjoy myself in driving too fast.
Participial Clauses of timePresent Participle, e.g. Spending all the money, he came back home.
Past Participle, e.g. That done, he moved on with the household chores.
Perfect ParticiplesAdverbial clauses of time can be performed by perfect participles, e.g. Having said that, he continued presenting the winners of the competition.
The subordinators WHEN and While used with participial clausese.g. While eating, I choked on a bone.
e.g. When doing my homework, I prefer listening to music.
The subordinator WhenObligatory in these cases: When = whenever
E.g. When driving on slippery roads, dont use brakes at all.
If the subordinate clause follows the main clauseE.g. When playing chess, he always smoked cigars.
The subordinator WHILEObligatory in the following cases: When it is equivalent to a finite adverbial clausee.g. While cleaning the car, I found this under the seat.When the participial clause of time follows the main clausee.g. I noticed a cute baby while looking out of the window. When the time relation between the subordinate and the main clause must not changee.g. While finishing her research paper, she worked as a teacher.
Past participial clauses of timeCan be:Related participial structurese.g. Asked why she cried, she said she didnt know.
Absolute participial structurese.g. The letter finished, he took it to the post office.
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