english adverbial clauses and turkish adverbial phrases

of 55/55
2015 ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES yüksel göknel YGOKNEL @ OUTLOOK . COM

Post on 10-Feb-2017

446 views

Category:

Education

30 download

Embed Size (px)

TRANSCRIPT

  • 1

    2015

    ENGLISH

    ADVERBIAL

    CLAUSES

    AND

    TURKISH

    ADVERBIAL

    PHRASES

    yksel gknel

    Y G O K N E L @ O U T L O O K . C O M

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    2

    [email protected]

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    3

    Note: The aim of this colored revised version of this article is not to make the pages look colorful, but to show the functional parts of the words in different colors. They are as follows: 1. Subject pronouns and subject allomorphs are written and underlined blue. 2. Verb roots, verb stems and verb frames, and the derivational allo-morphs that change noun roots or stems, and adjective roots into verbs are written and underlined red. 3. Objects, nouns, coordinating conjunctions and the last suffixes that turn words into nouns are written and underlined black. 4. Adverbs, adverbials, adverbial phrases, prepositions or postposi-tions, subordinating conjunctions, adverb clauses, and the inflectional allomorphs that change nouns into adverbs are written and underlined green. 5. Subject complements are underlined brown. 6. Adjectives and noun modifiers, and the purple allomorphs attached to nouns and verbs that change them into adjectives, and the a, an, the ariticles are written and underlined purple. In short, when you see a black allomorph attached to the end of a Turkish

    or an English word, that word together with the black allomorph is a noun. The green underlines indicate either English adverbial clauses or Turkish

    adverbial phrases.

    As a general rule, the successive identical vowels u-u, a-a, - and -,

    e-e, i-i combine and verbalize as single vowels, such as u, a, and

    , e, i. The single underlined consonants, such as r, k detaches from

    their syllables and attaches to the following vowels.

    ADVERBIAL CLAUSES

    Turkish Postpositional Adverbial Phrases

    In general, we can transform Turkish simple sentences into timeless

    adverbial phrases to furnish them with the concepts of time, contrast,

    cause, purpose, result, manner, degree, and place, etc. However, when

    we want to build up a conditional sentence, we attach either [se] or [sa]

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    4

    allomorphs to the ends of simple sentences to produce the only Turkish

    conditional clauses.

    English adverbial clauses are structurally simple sentences that are con-

    nected to main clauses by subordinating conjunctions, which are charac-

    terized by some fundamental adverbial concepts mentioned above. On the

    other hand, Turkish simple sentences undergo some transformational

    changes before they are used as adverbial phrases. Therefore, we can say

    that the English adverbial clauses are structurally adverbial sentences

    (clauses) as they have finite verbs at the ends of all adverbial clauses.

    TIME

    BEFORE (NCE)

    This time concept is expressed in main verb- [me-den] or [ma-dan] +

    nce in Turkish.

    Ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. Sonra okul-a gel-di-im. (im = benim) (m = ben)

    I did my homework. Then I came to school.

    One can understand from these sentences that the time of the first sentence

    is before the time of the second one. To furnish the first English sentence

    with a previous time concept, The Past Perfect Tense may be used to

    convey this time difference and the conjunction before is put in the begin-

    ning of the second sentence without its simple sentence order being

    changed.

    I had done (or did) my homework before I came to school. simple sentence subordinating conj simple sentence

    adverbial clause

    Although the normal order of the English sentence is like the sentence

    above, the regular order of the Turkish sentence is Before I came to school,

    I had done my homework. If we think about how this sentence is produced,

    we can find out that there are two simple sentences underlying it in our

    minds:

    (Ben) ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. (Ben) okul-a gel-di-im.

    In order to add a "before" time concept to the sentence "I came to school",

    only the word "before" is put in the beginning of the English sentence.

    However, in Turkish, to add the same concept "before (nce)" to the Turkish

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    5

    sentence, the sentence "Ben okul-a geldim + nce" is transformed into

    "ben okul-a gel-me-den (nce)", which is a timeless postpositional phrase. ben okul-a geldim + nce ben okul-a gel-me-den (nce)

    (Ben) okul-a gel-me-den (nce) (ben) ev dev-im-i yap-t-m. (m = ben)

    subject infinitive-den posp | | postpositional adverbial phrs definite object verb+subj allomorph predicate

    Note: The [me, ma] allomorphs have four different meanings in Turkish: 1: before, 2: without, 3: verb-[me, ma] infinitives, 4: negation [me, ma]

    suffxes. In the sentence above the me means before. Therefore, the subordi-

    nating conjunction before is used only to stress the time. However in the

    following sentence it may mean both without and before. Birey syle-me-den dar-/y/a k-t. (The me means without or before.)

    She went out without (or before) say-ing anything. (Ben) ev-e git-ecek-im + nce ben ev-e git-me-den (nce)

    Ev-e git-me-den (nce) biraz meyve al-acak-m. (m = ben) infinitive-den postp | | |

    postp adverbial phrase indefinite object verb subj allomorph predicate subject I will go home + before before I go home

    I will buy some fruit before I go home. subj verb object adverbial clause predicate The sentence order above may also change as follows: Ev dev-im-i okul-a gel-me-den (nce) yap-m-t-m. (im = benim) | infinitive-[den] postp | |

    definine object postpositional phrs of time verb subject

    predicate

    (e*v*de*vi*mi / o*ku*la / gel*me*den / yap*m*tm )

    The sentence order above is used when the adverb of time is stressed. The adverbial clauses in English start with subordinating conjunctions,

    and both the main clauses and the subordinate clauses in such complex

    sentences have finite verbs, which mean that both clauses are structurally

    simple sentences. When a subordinating conjunction such as before,

    after, since, although, until, when, or while, etc. is placed before

    one of these sentences, these subordinating conjunctions transform them

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    6

    into adverbial clauses, which are furnished by the concepts of these

    conjunctions. On the contrary, when an adverbial phrase is formed in

    Turkish, a simple sentences is transformed into a postpositional phrase

    before it becomes an adverbial phrase.

    If we think about how this sentence is produced, we can see that there is a

    simple sentence underlying the phrase "ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am" such

    as in the following example. (var-ma-am = benim var-ma-am) (Ben) istasyon-a var-d-m + nce "(ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan + nce

    (Ben) istasyon-a var-d-m + nce "ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan + nce"

    (Ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan nce tren git-ti (git-mi-ti).

    Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) tren git-mi-ti.

    Tren (Ben-im) istasyon-a var-ma-am - dan nce git-mi-ti subj noun + infinitive compound-dan postp |

    postpositional phrase of time verb predicate

    This sentence is like the English sentence, The train had left before my

    arriving at the station. In this sentence, ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am is a

    noun + infinitive compound. stasyon-a is an adverbial which is com-

    posed of a noun-[E]. Ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am is a nominal phrase.

    As all nouns can be followed by [], [E], [DE], [DEN] or [LE] morphemes, this

    nominal phrase can be followed by a [dan] allomorph. nce is a post-

    position used after a noun-[DEN] such as: le-den nce, okul-dan

    nce, sen-den nce, yemek-ten nce, sen gel-me-den nce. Therefore,

    ben-im istasyon-a var-ma-am-dan nce is a noun compound-dan + nce,

    which is a postpositional phrase functioning as an adverb of time.

    There are two kinds of subjects in Turkish sentences. One of them in the

    beginning of a sentence as a pronoun, and the other one as a subject

    allomorph attached to the main verb at the end. The subject allomorphs

    attached to the ends of the sentences are compulsory. However, the

    pronouns are always optional. The other two-sided expressions are in

    noun compounds. They have possessive personal allomorphs attached

    to the possessive and the owned parts of the compounds, such as in Arkda-n gel-

    di sentence, the n allomorph means senin. Therfore, senin is always omitted.

    Ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) tren git-mi-ti.

    (ben / is*tas*yo*na / var*ma*dan / tren / git*mi*ti )

    Before I arrived at the station, the train had left.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    7

    Tren, ben istasyon-a var-ma-dan (nce) git-mi-ti.

    (tren / ben / is*tas*yo*na / var*ma*dan / n*ce / git*mi*ti )

    The train had left before I arrived at the station.

    Cevap ver-me-den (nce) dn. (me means before)

    (Cevap is a noun, ver-me-den is an adverbial)

    (ce*vap / ver*me*den / d*n )

    Think before you answer.

    Unut-ma-dan (nce) onu defter-im-e yaz-acak-m. (im=benim, m=ben)

    (u*nut*ma*dan / o*nu / def*te*ri*me / ya*za*ca*m )

    I will write it in my notebook before I forget it.

    Bro-un-a git-me-den (nce) tra ol-mal-sn. (un=senin, sn=sen)

    (b*ro*na / git*me*den / tra / ol*ma*l*sn )

    You must shave before you go to your office.

    Dar-/y/a k-ma-dan (nce) ceket-in-i giy. (in=senin)

    (d*a*r / k*ma*dan / ce*ke*ti*ni / giy )

    Put your coat on before you go out.

    Kompozisyon-u-/n/u teslim et-me-den (nce), baba-/s/ yanl-lar--/n/

    dzelt-mi-ti. (u=onun) (/s/=onun) (yanl-lar--/n/ = onun yanllarn)

    (kom*po*zis*yo*nu*nu / tes*lim / et*me*den / n*ce / ba*ba*s / yan*l*la*-

    r*n / d*zelt*mi*ti )

    Her father had corrected her mistakes before she handed in her composition.

    la- al-ma-dan (nce) sie-/y/i iyi-(ce) calkala.

    (i*la*c / al*ma*dan / i*e*yi / i*yi*ce / al*ka*la )

    Shake the bottle well before you take the medicine.

    Cami-/y/e gir-me-den (nce) ayakkab-lar-n- kar-mal-sn.

    (ca:*mi*ye / gir*me*den / a*yak*ka*b*la*r*n / *kar*ma*l*sn )

    You must take off your shoes before you enter the mosque.

    Baz renci-ler zil al-ma-dan (nce) snf-tan k-t-lar. (lar = onlar)

    (ba:*z / *ren*ci*ler / zil / al*ma*dan / s*nf*tan / k*t*lar )

    Some students (had) left the classroom before the bell rang.

    Note: When the [e, a], [de, da, te, ta], [den, dan, ten, tan] and [le, la]

    allomorphs attach to nouns or infinitives, these allomorphs turn them into

    adverbials.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    8

    mzala-ma-dan (nce) onu dikkat-le oku.

    (im*za:*la*ma*dan / o*nu / dik*kat*le / o*ku )

    Read it carefully before you sign it.

    Yat-ma-dan (nce) klar- sndr.

    (yat*ma*dan / *k*la*r / sn*dr )

    Turn off the lights before you go to bed.

    Sou-ma-dan (nce) orba-an- i.

    (so*u*ma*dan / or*ba*n / i )

    Eat up your soup before it becomes cold.

    (Sen) ack-ma-dan (nce) birey ye-me.

    (a*ck*ma*dan / bi*ey / ye*me )

    Dont eat anything before you feel hungry.

    Dn-me-den (nce) konu-ma.

    (d*n*me*den /ko*nu*ma )

    Dont speak before you think.

    Tiyatro-/y/a git-me-den (nce) piyes-i oku-mu-tu-um.

    (ti*yat*ro*ya / git*me*den / pi*ye*si / o*ku*mu*tum )

    I had read the play before I went to the theatre.

    Hava karar-ma-dan (nce) ev-e dn.

    (ha*va / ka*rar*ma*dan / e*ve / dn )

    Come back home before it gets dark.

    Satn al-ma-dan (nce) ikinci el bir araba-/y/ test et-meli-sin.

    (i*kin*ci / el / bir / a*ra*ba*y /sa*tn / al*ma*dan / test / et*me*li*sin)

    You must test a second-hand car before you buy it.

    Okul-a git-me-den (nce) oku-/y/up yaz-abil-iyor-du.

    (o*ku*la / git*me*den / o*ku*yup / ya*za*bi*li*yor*du)

    He could read and write before he went to school.

    Sev-dik-im program televizyon-da bala-ma-dan (nce) ev-de ol-acak-

    m. (sev*di*im / prog*ram / te*le*viz*yon*da / ba*la*ma*dan / ev*de /

    o*la*ca*m )

    Ill be home before my favorite program starts on TV.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    9

    Yemek-e gel-me-den (nce) el-ler-in-i yka-mal-sn.

    (ye*me*e / gel*me*den / el*le*ri*ni / y*ka*ma*l*sn )

    You must wash your hands before you come to dinner. k-ma-dan (nce) kasiyer-e de.

    (k*ma*dan / n*ce / ka*si*ye*re / *de )

    Pay the cashier before you leave.

    AFTER (SONRA) To transform a simple sentence into a sonra phrase, one should use

    verb- [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]-[ten, tan] + sonra composition

    following the vowel and consonant harmony rules. Sonra is a postposition

    used after noun-[DEN] + sonra such as okul-dan sonra, sen-den son-

    ra, sen gel-dik-ten sonra, which are all postpositional adverbial phrases.

    For example: gel-dik-ten sonra, al-dk-tan sonra, oku-duk-tan sonra, se-tik-ten son-

    ra, piir-dik-ten sonra, grn-dk-ten sonra, bekle-tik-ten sonra,

    anla-tk-tan sonra, piiril-dik-ten sonra, ben-den sonra, etc. Note: The word verb covers both the verb roots, stems, frames,

    and verbal compositions.

    In the composition above, the [dik, dk, dk, duk, tik, tk, tk, tuk]

    allomorphs produce infinitives that are attached to [den, dan, ten, tan]

    allomorphs that are followed by the "sonra" postposition. This composition

    produces a timeless prepositional adverbial phrase whose time is inferred

    from the time of the finite verbs at the ends of the sentences.

    Like all infinitives, this composition does not convey a time concept. Its time

    concept is inferred from the time concept of the finite verb that is used

    together with the postpositional adverbial phrase: Follow the examples:

    (O) ev dev-i-/n/i yap-tk-tan sonra yat-t. subj definite obj of yap infinitive-tan postp |

    postp adverbial phrase of time verb

    predicate

    He went to bed after he had done (he did) his homework.

    ocuk-lar zil al-dk-tan sonra futbol oyna-mak iin dar-/y/a k-acak subject infinitive- tan postp infinitive postp | |

    postp adverb phrs of time postp adverb phrs of cause adverbial verb

    predicate

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    10

    The boys will go out to play football after the bell rings. subject verb adv prep phrs of cause adverbial clause of time

    predicate

    Bitir-dik-ten sonra kompozisyon-um-u teslim et-ti-im.

    (bi*tir*dik*ten / son*ra / kom*po*zis*yo*nu*mu / tes*lim / et*tim )

    After I had finished, I handed in my composition. Onlar k-tk-tan sonra al-ma-/y/a bala-d-m.

    (on*lar / k*tk*tan / son*ra / a*l*ma*ya / ba*la*dm )

    I began to study after they (had) left. (To study is an infinitive.)

    stanbul-dan ayrl-dk-tan sonra sana bir mektup yaz-acak-m.

    (is*tan*bul*dan / ay*rl*dk*tan / son*ra / sa*na / bir / mek*tup /

    ya*za*ca*m) I will write you a letter after I leave stanbul. Bir ift yeni ayakkab al-dk-tan sonra ev-e git-ti.

    (bir / ift / ye*ni / a*yak*ka*b / al*dk*tan / son*ra / e*ve / git*ti )

    She went home after she (had) bought a new pair of shoes. Emekli ol-duk-tan sonra bir ky-de yaa-ma-/y/a bala-d.

    (e*mek*li / ol*duk*tan / son*ra / bir / ky*de / ya*a*ma*ya / ba*la*d )

    He began to live in a village after he (had) retired.

    Okul-dan ayrl-dk-tan sonra ne yap-acak-sn?

    (o*kul*dan / ay*rl*dk*tan / son*ra / ne / ya*pa*cak*sn)

    What will you do after you leave (have left) school?

    Du yap-tk-tan sonra yat-t.

    (du / yap*tk*tan / son*ra / yat*t )

    He went to bed after he had (had) a shower.

    Konser bit-tik-ten sonra bir restoran-a git-elim.

    (kon*ser / bit*tik*ten / son*ra / bir / res*to*ra*na / gi*de*lim )

    Let us go to a restaurant after the concert is over.

    WHEN and WHILE

    To transform a simple Turkish sentence into a when clause, verb- [ince,

    nca, nce, unca] adverbial phrase is used. The [NCE] morpheme is a

    suffix that is attached to verb roots, stems or frames to express the concept

    of when of the English language. Likewise, the [RKEN] morpheme, which

    has the allomorphs of [irken, rken, rken, urken, erken, arken], is

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    11

    attached to verb stems and frames to expresses while. The [NCE] and

    [RKEN] morphemes correspond to the English words when and while

    respectively. In the following examples, the [NCE] and [RKEN] morphemes

    are attached to verbs that end with consonants:

    When while

    ben okul-a gel-ince ben okul-a gel-irken

    ben onu sat-nca sen onu al-rken

    o gl-nce sen ksr-rken

    sen ona dokun-unca sen konu-urken

    zil al-nca sen elma-lar- e-erken

    okul al-nca sen patates-ler-i soy-arken

    elma-lar satl-nca biz bahe-de gez-erken

    When the verbs end with vowels, however, the allomorphs of [NCE] are

    attached to these verbs by the /y/ glides. On the other hand, when the

    allomorphs of [RKEN] are attached to verbs ending with vowels, the

    coinciding vowels i-i, -, -, u-u, e-e, a-a combine:

    when while

    sen durak-ta bekle-/y/ince sen durak-ta bekle-erken

    ben onu anla-/y/nca Ahmet horoz-u kovala-arken

    ben oku-ma-/y/a bala-/y/nca Mary sa--/n/ kurula-arken

    sen uyu-/y/unca sen uyu-urken

    Besides the [NCE] morpheme, there are two more adverbial alternatives

    that convey the concept of when:

    verb- [DK]-[possessive personal morpheme] + zaman, or

    verb- [DK]-[possessive personal morpheme]-[de, da]

    Okul-a git-ince retmen-in-i grecek-sin. (gi*din*ce) (sin = sen)

    Okul-a git-tik-in zaman retmen-in-i grecek-sin. (git*ti*in / za*man)

    Okul-a git-tik-in-de retmen-in-i grecek-sin. (git*ti*in*de)

    The meaning of all the three sentences above is You will see your

    teacher when you go to school, and the underlined expressions are the

    equivalents of the English coordinating conjunction when.

    We can explain how this mental composition is transformed as follows:

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    12

    Sen onu grecek-sin + zaman "sen onu gr-nce, or sen onu gr-

    dk-n zaman, or sen onu gr-dk-n-de

    O beni gr-d + zaman o beni gr-nce, or o beni gr-dk- za-

    man, or o beni gr-dk-n-de (gr*d*n*de).

    You will see him + when when you see him

    The basic English simple future sentence structure above transforms into

    The Simple Present vocalized adverbial clause.

    1. Okul-a git-ince retmen-in-i gr-ecek-sin. adverb of time (noun comp-i) definite obj verb subj

    predicate

    (o*ku*la / gi*din*ce / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin )

    You will see your teacher when you go to school.

    2. Okul-a git-tik-in zaman retmen-in-i gr-ecek-sin.

    (o*ku*la / git*ti*in / za*man / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin )

    You will see your teacher when you go to school.

    3. Okul-a git-tik-in-de retmen-in-i gr-ecek-sin.

    (o*ku*la / git*ti*in*de / *ret*me*ni*ni / g*re*cek*sin )

    You will see your teacher when you go to school.

    When Turkish simple sentences are transformed into when adverbial

    phrases, they lose their time concepts as they do in before and after

    clauses. This time deficiency is fulfilled by the finite verbs at the ends of the

    sentences. Although, the inflectional allomorphs attached to verb roots, stems

    or frames are all secondarily stressed such as (gi*der*ken), (gi*din*ce),

    (git*ti*in*de), (gi*der*sen), (git*mem), (git*mez*sen), only one of them can be

    primarily stressed.

    Follow the examples: al-nca ren-ir-iz.

    (a*l*n*ca / *re*ni*riz )

    We learn when we study.

    Ben-i gr-nce glmse-di. (The third person singular verbs take no subject allomorphs.)

    (be*ni / g*rn*ce / g*lm*se*di ) She smiled when she saw me.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    13

    (Susa-/y/nca ne i-er-siniz?

    (su*sa*yn*ca / ne / i*er*si*niz)

    What do you drink when you are thirsty?

    retmen snf-a gir-ince btn renciler ayak-a kalk-ar.

    (*ret*men / s*n*fa / gi*rin*ce ~/ b*tn / *ren*ci*ler / a*ya*a / kal*kar)

    All the students stand up when the teacher enters the classroom.

    Haber-i iit-ince mutlu ol-acak-sn.

    (ha*be*ri / i*i*tin*ce / mut*lu / o*la*cak*sn )

    You will be happy when you hear the news.

    Yabanc bir lke-/y/e git-tik-in zaman para-an- deitir-meli-sin.

    (ya*ban*c / bir / l*ke*ye / git*ti*in / za*man / pa*ra*n / de*i*tir*me*li*sin )

    When you go to a foreign country, you must change your money. Onu gr-dk-m-de kiraz ye-iyor-du.

    (o*nu / gr*d*m*de / ki*raz / yi*yor*du )

    She was eating cherries when I saw her.

    Oku-ma-/y/ bitir-ince, ltfen kitap-m- geri gnder.

    (o*ku*ma*y / bi*ti*rin*ce / lt*fen / ki*ta*b*m / ge*ri / gn*der )

    Please send my book back when you have finished read-ing it.

    Yorgun ol-duk-um zaman bir fincan kahve i-mek-ten zevk al-r-m.

    (yor*gun / ol*du*um / za*man ~/ bir / fin*can / kah*ve / i*mek*ten / zevk /

    a*l*rm ) I enjoy hav-ing a cup of coffee when I am tired.

    Hazr ol-duk-um zaman ne yap-ma-am- iste-iyor-sun?

    (ha*zr / ol*du*um / za*man / ne / yap*ma*m / is*ti*yor*sun)

    What do you want me to do when I am ready? (To do is an infinitive.)

    Biz bir yanl-lk yap-nca retmen-imiz dzelt-ir.

    (biz / bir / yan*l*lk / ya*pn*ca / *ret*me*ni*miz / d*zel*tir )

    When we make a mistake, our teacher corrects it.

    Zaman-m ol-unca gel-ip sen-i gr-ecek-im.

    (za*ma:*nm / o*lun*ca / ge*lip / se*ni / g*re*ce*im )

    I will come and see you when I have time.

    Trafik klar- krmz-/y/a dn-nce dur-mal-/y/z.

    (tra*fik / *k*la*r / kr*m*z*ya / d*nn*ce / dur*ma*l*yz )

    We must stop when the traffic lights turn red.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    14

    Fatma gel-ince ders al-acak-z.

    (fat*ma / ge*lin*ce / ders / a*l*a*ca*z )

    We will study when Fatma comes.

    stasyon-a var-nca bilet-in-i al-abil-ir-sin.

    (is*tas*yo*na / va*rn*ca / bi*le*ti*ni / a*la*bi*lir*sin )

    You can buy your ticket when you arrive at the station.

    Note: The pronouns in parentheses are not generally used. They are put in

    the sentences above to make the meaning clearer for the learners.

    WHILE

    In order to insert the duration concept of while into a transformed

    adverbial phrase, you should use the verb-[irken, rken, rken, urken,

    erken, arken] duration allomorphs when action verbs are involved, such

    as gel-irken, git-erken, yaz-arken, otur-urken, beklen-irken. This

    morpheme is like the morpheme [YOR] whose second syllable never follows

    the vowel harmony rules. However, when you use adjectives, nouns or

    prepositional adverbials, you should attach only ken morpheme to

    these words to convey both when and while.

    Note: The /y/ glide is used when a word ends with a vowel; but when a word

    ends with a consonant only ken morpheme is attached to such words,

    such as ev-de/y/-ken, okul-da/y/-ken, boyal/y/-ken, evli/y/-ken, be-

    kr-ken, ocuk-ken, var-ken, kasap-ken, gen-ken, yal/y/-ken, bu-

    ra-da/y/-ken, sokak-ta-/y/ken, etc.

    The mental composition of "while" (duration) allomorphs are as follows:

    Jack okul-a git-iyor-du + duration Jack okul-a git-erken (gi*der*ken)

    Jack okul-a git-erken bir kese altn para bul-du. subj adverbial adverbial | |

    adverbial phrase of time indefinite object verb

    predicate

    Jack was going to school + duration while Jack was going to school

    Jack found a purse of gold coins while he was going to school. subj verb indefinite object adverbial clause of time predicate

    Consider the example sentences below:

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    15

    Oul-um bahe-de oyna-arken eski bir para bul-du.

    (o*lum / bah*e*de / oy*nar*ken / es*ki / bir / pa*ra / bul*du)

    My son found an old coin while he was playing in the garden.

    Ben ev-de/y/-ken btn ev iler-i-/n/i kendim yap-ar-m. (Liaison)

    (ben / ev*dey*ken / b*tn / e*vi*le*ri*ni / ken*dim / ya*pa*rm )

    I do all the housework myself when I am at home.

    Biz ocuk-ken televizyon seyret-eme-iyor-du-uk, nk televizyon daha

    kefetil-me-mi-ti.

    (biz / o*cuk*ken / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*mi*yor*duk / n*k~ /

    te*le*viz*yon / da*ha / ke*fe*dil*me*mi*ti )

    We couldnt watch television when we were children because it hadnt

    been invented yet.

    Ev dev-in-i ben bura-da/y/-ken yap.

    (ev / *de*vi*ni / ben / bu*ra*day*ken / yap )

    Do your homework while (when) I am here.

    Ben yeni szck-ler-i ret-irken Fatma pencere-den dar bak-yor-du.

    (ben / ye*ni / sz*ck*le*ri / *re*tir*ken / fat*ma / pen*ce*re*den / d*a*r

    / ba*k*yor*du )

    While I was teaching the new words, Fatma was looking out of the window.

    Ben bura-da/y/-ken grlt et-me.

    (ben / bu*ra*day*ken / g*rl*t / et*me )

    Dont make a noise while (when) I am here.

    Radyo dinle-erken ders al-abil-ir mi-sin?

    (rad*yo / din*ler*ken / ders / a*l*a*bi*lir / mi*sin )

    Can you study while (when) you are listening to the radio? Karde-in-i ders al-rken rahatsz et-me. (in means sen-in)

    (kar*de*i*ni / ders / a*l*r*ken / ra*hat*sz / et*me )

    Dont disturb your brother while (when) he is studying. Ben dar-da/y/-ken kimse bana telefon et-ti mi?

    (ben / d*a*r*day*ken / kim*se / ba*na / te*le*fon / et*ti / mi )

    Did anyone telephone me when (while) I was out? Fatma onsekiz ya-n-da/y/-ken ok gzel-di.

    (fat*ma / on*se*kiz / ya*n*day*ken / ok / g*zel*di )

    Fatma was very beautiful when she was eighteen.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    16

    Sen mutfak-ta megul-ken kedi btn st- i-ti.

    (sen / mut*fak*ta / me*gul*ken / ke*di / b*tn / s*t / i*ti )

    The cat drank up all the milk when you were busy in the kitchen. Onlar rmak-ta yz-erken biri-/s/i onlar-n giysiler-i-/n/i al-d.

    (on*lar / r*mak*ta / y*zer*ken / bi*ri*si / on*la*rn / giy*si*le*ri*ni / al*d )

    Somebody stole their clothes while (when) they were swimming in the river.

    Zaman-n var-ken dersler-in-i al. (n and in mean senin)

    (za*ma:*nn / var*ken / ders*le*ri*ni / a*l )

    Study your lessons while you have time.

    Zaman-n ol-unca araba-/y/ yka-/y/abil-ir-sin. (n means senin)

    (za*ma:*nn / o*lun*ca / a*ra*ba*y / y*ka*ya*bi*lir*sin )

    You can wash the car when you have time.

    Ko-arken d-t-m.

    (ko*ar*ken / d*tm )

    I fell down while I was running.

    Kz-m-a bir hikye anlat-rken uyu-/y/akal-d. (m means benim)

    (k*z*ma / bir / hi*k:*ye / an*la*tr*ken / u*yu*ya / kal*d )

    My daughter fell asleep while I was telling her a story.

    Merdiven-den aa-/y/a in-erken dikkatli ol.

    (mer*di*ven*den / a*a* / i*ner*ken / dik*kat*li / ol )

    Be careful when you are walking down the stairs.

    Ev dev-in-i yap-arken televizyon seyret-emez-sin. (in means senin)

    (e*v*de*vi*ni / ya*par*ken / te*le*viz*yon / sey*re*de*mez*sin )

    You can't watch television while you are doing your homework.

    AS SOON AS

    In order to express as soon as in Turkish, one should use a positive and negative verb composition of The Simple Present Tense following one an-other. The adverbial phrases that are built up with these verbal compounds are timeless and their function is adverbial:

    Zil ald. zil alar al-maz (a*lar / al*maz)

    Jack eve geldi. Jack ev-e gelir gel-mez (ge*lir / gel*mez)

    Gne doacak. gne do-ar do-maz (do*ar / do*maz)

    Mary beni grd. Mary ben-i gr-r gr-mez (g*rr / gr*mez)

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    17

    Mary odasna girdi. Mary oda-/s/-/n/a gir-er gir-mez (gi*rer / gir*mez)

    As it is seen, the transformed phrases above are timeless and function as

    adverbial phrases of time:

    Jack ev-e gel-ir gel-mez dev-i-/n/i yap-ma-/y/a bala-d.

    Gne do-ar do-maz yol-a koyul-acak-lar.

    Mary ben-i gr-r gr-mez kap-/n/n arka-/s/-/n/a saklan-d.

    Mary oda-/s/-/n/a gir-er gir-mez bir iskelet-le karla-t.

    renciler zil al-ar al-maz bahe-de oyna-mak iin dar-/y/a k-t-lar. subject | | infinitive postp | |

    adv phrase of time adverbial postp phrs of purpose adverbial verb

    predicate

    As soon as the bell rang, the students went out to play in the garden.

    The places of adverbs and nouns are arranged in sentences in accordance

    with the importance given to these units. Therefore the following alternatives

    of the sentence above may also be produced as follows:

    renciler, zil alar al-maz bahe-de oyna-mak iin diar-/y/a kt-lar.

    renciler, bahede oynamak iin zil alar almaz dar-y/a k-t-lar.

    Zil alar almaz, bahede oynamak iin renciler dar-/y/a ktlar.

    *Dar-/y/a ktlar renciler zil alar almaz bahede oynamak iin.

    The last sentence above is understandable, but a Turkish teacher may not

    accept it as a good sentence.

    The main point in changing the places of the adverbial units above is that

    the nearer to the verb, the more important these units are. However, in doing

    this, the grammatical units should be kept intact. The grammatical units in

    the sentences above are as follows:

    1. renciler 2. zil alar almaz 3. bahede oynamak iin 4. darya ktlar.

    Examples:

    Yatak--/n/a yat-ar yat-maz uyku-/y/a dal-d. (I means kendisinin)

    (ya*ta**na / ya*tar / yat*maz / uy*ku*/ya / dal*d )

    He fell asleep as soon as he went to bed.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    18

    Sokak-ta-ki ocuk-u gr-r gr-mez fren-e bas-t.

    (so*kak*ta*ki / o*cu*u / g*rr / gr*mez / fre*ne / bas*t )

    He hit the brakes as soon as he saw the boy in the street.

    Sen hazr ol-ur ol-maz dar-/y/a k-acak-z.

    (sen / ha*zr / o*lur / ol*maz / d*a*r / *ka*ca*z )

    We will go out as soon as you are ready.

    Avc kaplan- gr-r gr-mez ate et-ti.

    (av*c / kap*la*n / g*rr / gr*mez / a*te / et*ti )

    The hunter fired as soon as he saw the tiger.

    Vakt-in ol-ur ol-maz gel ben-i gr. (in means sen-in)

    (vak*tin / o*lur / ol*maz / gel / be*ni / gr )

    Come and see me as soon as you have time.

    Gne do-ar do-maz yol-a koyul-du-lar. (lar means onlar)

    (g*ne / do*ar / do*maz / yo*la / ko*yul*du*lar )

    They set off as soon as the sun rose. UNTIL (KADAR, DEK) noun-[e, a] + kadar (dek)

    When the nouns, such as sabah, yarn, saat alt is chosen, they are

    attached to the [e, a] allomorphs followed by the postposition kadar:

    Sabah-a kadar al-acak-lar. They will work until morning. postp phrs of time verb | subject verb prep phrs of time

    predicate subj predicate

    Gece yars-/n/a kadar (dek) televizyon seyret-ti-ik. (ik means biz)

    (ge*ce / ya*r*s*na / ka*dar / te*le*viz*yon / sey*ret*tik )

    We watched TV until midnight. (Kadar and dek are postpositions.)

    Saat -e kadar ben-i bekle.

    (sa*at / *e / ka*dar / be*ni / bek*le )

    Wait for me until three oclock.

    Gelecek yl-a kadar ngilizce al-ma-/y/a devam et-ecek-im.

    (ge*le*cek / se*ne*ye / ka*dar / in*gi*liz*ce / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:m /

    e*de*ce*im ) I will go on study-ing English until next year.

    If a simple sentence is chosen to be used as an adverb of time, verb-

    [ene, ana] + kadar structure, which is a timeless adverbial phrase of time,

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    19

    is used to express until in Turkish. The logical development of "until" is as

    follows: Gne do-du + kadar gne do-ana kadar (do*a*na)

    Gne do-ana kadar tarla-da al-t-lar. (lar means onlar)

    The sun rose + until until the sun rose

    They worked in the field until the sun rose.

    Gne do-acak + kadar ne do-ana kadar

    Gne do-ana kadar tarla-da al-acak-z. (z means biz)

    The sun will rise + until until the sun rises

    We will work in the field until the sun rises.

    Gne do-ana kadar tarla-da alt-lar. (lar means onlar) adverbial postp | | subj postp adverbial phrs adverbial verb

    predicate

    They worked in the field until the sun rose subject verb adv phrase adverbial clause

    predicate

    (Sen) yarn-a kadar bekle. (You) wait until tomorrow. subject noun-a postp | subject | prep phrs of time

    postp phrs of time verb verb adverbial

    predicate predicate

    As an alternative to the above adverbial phrase verb-[ince-/y/e, nca-

    /y/a, nce-/y/e, unca-/y/a] + kadar form can also be used:

    Boya kuru-/y/unca-/y/a kadar duvarlar-a dokun-ma.

    (bo*ya / ku*ru*ya*na / ka*dar / du*var*la*ra / do*kun*ma )

    Dont touch the walls until the paint dries.

    Sen ev-e dn-ene kadar ders al-acak-m-a sz ver-iyor-um.

    (sen / e*ve / d*ne*ne / ka*dar / ders / a*l*a*ca**ma / sz /

    ve*ri*yo*rum )

    I promise I will study until you come back home.

    Hava karar-ana kadar ocuk-lar bahe-de oyna-d-lar.

    (ha*va / ka*ra*ra*na / ka*dar / o*cuk*lar / bah*e*de / oy*na*d*lar )

    The children played in the garden until it got dark.

    (Sen) bir iftlik-e gel-ene kadar bu patika-/y/ izle.

    (bir / ift*li*e / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bu / pa*ti*ka*y / iz*le )

    Follow this path until you come to a farm.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    20

    Yardm gel-ene kadar bekle-mek zor-u/n/-da kal-d-lar.

    (yar*dm / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bek*le*mek / zo*run*da / kal*d*lar )

    They had to wait until the help came.

    l-ene kadar sava-t-lar.

    (*le*ne / ka*dar / sa*va*t*lar )

    They fought until they died.

    arl-ana kadar dar-da bekle. (Passive)

    (a*r*la*na / ka*dar / d*a*r*da / bek*le )

    Wait outside untill you are called.

    Bir ada-/y/a gel-ene kadar krek ek-ti-ler.

    (bir / a*da*ya / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / k*rek / ek*ti*ler )

    They rowed until they came to an island.

    Yamur dur-ana kadar bir yer-e sn-alm.

    (ya*mur / du*ra*na / ka*dar / bir / ye*re / s**na*lm )

    Let us shelter somewhere until it stops rain-ing.

    Onlar gel-ene kadar bir ey yap-ama-/y/z.

    (on*lar / ge*le*ne / ka*dar / bir*ey / ya*pa*ma*yz )

    We cant do anything untill they come.

    zr dile-/y/ene kadar sen-in-le konu-ma-/y/acak-m.

    (*zr / di*le*ye*ne / ka*dar / se*nin*le / ko*nu*ma*ya*ca*m )

    I wont speak with you until you apologize.

    Saat ka-a kadar (ben-im) bura-da bekle-me-em-i iste-iyor-sun?

    (sa*at / ka*a / ka*dar / bu*ra*da / bek*le*me*mi / is*ti*yor*sun )

    Until what time do you want me to wait here?

    Ben-i sev-dik-in-i syle-/y/ene kadar bura-da otur-acak-m.

    (be*ni / sev*di*i*ni / sy*le*ye*ne / ka*dar / bu*ra*da / o*tu*ra*ca*m )

    I am going to sit here until you tell me that you love me.

    Sen-i l-ene kadar sev-ecek-im.

    (se*ni / *le*ne / ka*dar / se*ve*ce*im )

    I will love you until I die.

    BY and BY THE TIME

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    21

    By or by the time means not later than in English. This time concept

    is reflected into Turkish sentences by using The Future Perfect Tense, such

    as: bitir-mi ol-acak-m, gel-mi ol-acak-lar, etc. preceded by a noun-

    [e, a] + kadar, or "verb- [ene, ana] + kadar", or "verb- [ince-/y/e, nca-

    /y/a, nce-/y/e, unca-/y/a] + kadar" timeless adverbial phrases:

    Consider the following: Yarn-a kadar i-im-i bitir-mi ol-acak-m. (Bitirmi is subj complement.) postp phrs of time definite obj adjective verb |

    predicate subj

    I will have finished my work by tomorrow. subj verb object prep phrs of time

    predicate If a simple sentence is needed to be transformed, verb- [ene, ana] +

    kadar structure is used in the adverbial phrase section of a sentence. The

    logical process of this transformation is as follows: Annem eve dn-ecek + o zamana kadar anne-em ev-e dn-ene kadar

    Mother will come back home + by the time by the time mother comes back home Anne-em ev-e dn-ene kadar i-im-i bitir-mi ol-acak-m. postpositional phrase of time definite object subj comlement verb |

    predicate subj

    (an*nem / e*ve / d*ne*ne / ka*dar / i*i*mi / bi*tir*mi / o*la*ca*m )

    I will have finished my work by the time my mother comes back home. subj verb object adverbial clause of time

    predicate

    Dn-nce-/y/e kadar may also be used as an alternative to the above

    expression: Biz stadyum-a var-nca-/y/a kadar ma bit-mi ol-acak.

    (biz / stad*yu*ma / va*rn*ca*ya / ka*dar / ma / bit*mi / o*la*cak )

    The match will have been over by the time we get to the stadium.

    Sen ev-e var-nca-/y/a kadar btn pasta-/y/ ye-mi ol-acak-lar.

    (sen / e*ve / va*rn*ca*ya / ka*dar / b*tn / pas*ta*y / ye*mi / o*la*cak*lar)

    They will have eaten up all the cake by the time you arrive home.

    SINCE (BER) If single nouns or modifier + noun compounds such as dokuz,

    sabah, le, dn, "geen hafta", "geen ay", "geen yl" are

    chosen to express, a noun-[den, dan] + beri or a possessive +

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    22

    owned- [den, dan] + beri] postpositional phrase structure is used to

    express since nine, since morning, "since last year", since last summer,

    or since you went away expressions. The word beri is a postposition.

    The functions of these phrases are adverbial:

    Onu geen hafta-dan beri gr-me-di-im. def obj postp adverbial phrs of time verb |

    predicate subj

    I havent seen her since last week. (Since is a preposition.) subj verb object prep phrase of time

    predicate

    Saat dokuz-dan beri bekle-iyor-um.

    (sa*at / do*kuz*dan / be*ri / bek*li*yo*rum )

    I have been waiting since nine. (Since is a preposition.)

    As dokuz, sabah. le, etc. are nouns, a noun + infinitive"-[DEN] +

    beri can also be used in their places:

    (Ben) seni grdm + den beri (ben-im) sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri

    I saw you + since since I saw you (Since is a subordinate conjunction.)

    (ben-im) sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri noun compound-den postp postpositional adverbial phrase of time Sen-i gr-dk-m-den beri birsey yap-ma-d-n noun comp-den postp | | | postp adverbial phrase of time object verb subj

    predicate

    You havent done anything since I saw you. subj verb object adverbial clause of time

    predicate

    Sen-i ilk gr-dk-m-den beri sev-iyor-um.

    (se*ni / ilk / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / se*vi*yo*rum )

    I have been in love with you since I saw you first.

    stanbuldan ayrl-dk-n-dan beri sen-den bir mektup al-ma-d-m.

    (is*tan*bul*dan / ay*rl*d*n*dan / be*ri / sen*den / bir / mek*tup / al*ma*dm )

    I havent received a letter from you since you left stanbul.

    Ev-den k-tk-n-dan beri birsey yap-ma-d-m.

    (ev*den / k*t*n*dan / be*ri / bir / ey / yap*ma*dm )

    I havent done anything since you left home.

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    23

    Sen-i son gr-dk-m-den beri ne yap-yor-sun?

    (se*ni / son / gr*d*m*den / be*ri / ne / ya*p*yor*sun )

    What have you been doing since I saw you last?

    Kz-lar-dan baz-lar- snf-a gir-dik-ler-i/n/-den beri gl--p konu-uyor-lar.

    (kz*lar*dan / ba*z*la*r / s*n*fa / gir*dik*le*rin*den / be*ri / g*l*p /

    ko*nu*u*yor*lar )

    Some of the girls have been chatting and giggling since they came into

    the classroom.

    Bura-/y/a gel-dik-in-den beri ne kadar oldu? or

    Sen bura-/y/a gel-eli ne kadar ol-du?

    (sen / bu*ra*ya / ge*le*li / ne / ka*dar / ol*du)

    How long is it (has it been) since you came here?

    Biz-im komu-/n/un u aptal kopek-i ben ev-e gel-dik-im-den beri havla-yor.

    (bi*zim / kom*u*nun / u / ap*tal / k*pe*i / ben / e*ve / gel*di*im*den /

    be*ri / hav*l*yor )

    That stupid dog of our neighbors has been barking since I came home.

    Otobs- kar-dk-m-dan beri bura-da bekle-iyor-um.

    (o*to*b*s / ka*r*d*m*dan / be*ri / bu*ra*da / bek*li*yo*rum )

    I have been waiting here since I missed the bus. Yamur bala-dk-/n-dan beri otobs durak-/n/-da bekle-iyor-um.

    (ya*mur / ba*la*d*n*dan / be*ri / o*to*bs / du*ra*n*da / bek*li*-

    yo*rum ) I have been waiting at the bus stop since it started rain-ing.

    Kpek ben-i gr-dk-n-den beri arka-am-dan gel-iyor.

    (k*pek / be*ni / gr*d*n*den / be*ri / ar*kam*dan / ge*li*yor )

    The dog has been following me since it saw me.

    CAUSE OR REASON

    As, since or because subordinating conjunctions are used in English

    to express cause or reason. In Turkish, in place of as or since, iin

    postposition is used. Since all postpositions follow nouns in Turkish, iin

    can also follow a noun, a pronoun, an infinitive, or a noun + infinitive

    compound. All noun + infinitive and modifier + noun compounds are

    syntactic nominal phrases. Follow the simple sentences below:

    Ben eve ge gel-di-im + iin (ben-(im) ev-e ge gel-dik-im iin

    I came home late + as as I came home late

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    24

    As the (ben-im) parts in the noun compounds are generally ignored, only

    the owned parts of the noun compounds are used as gel-dik-im and ge

    gel-dik-im. Since these parts are the owned parts of the noun compounds,

    they are also nouns, and so, they can be followed by the postposition

    iin:

    Okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin ben-i cezalandr-d-lar. (im means benim) noun + infinitive compound postp | | I

    postpositional phrase of cause def obj verb subj

    predicate

    Note: (Ben-im) and (onlar) are not used in the sentence above; they may be

    put there so that the noun compounds should be well understood. The

    personal suffixes [im, m, m, um, em, am], which mean ben-im, at the

    ends of the verb compositions are enough to express the possessive

    pronouns, and the [ler, lar], which mean onlar, are enough. They punished me as I came to school late, subject verb object adverbial clause of cause predicate

    Okul-a ge gel-dik-im iin ben-i cezalandr-d-lar.

    (o*ku*la / ge / gel*di*im / i*in / be*ni / ce*za:*lan*dr*d*lar )

    They punished me as I came to school late. Sorular g ol-duk-u iin (onlar-n) ok-u-/n/a cevap ver-eme-di-im.

    (so*ru*lar / g / ol*du*u / i*in / o*u*na / ce*vap / ve*re*me*dim )

    As the questions were difficult, I couldnt answer most of them.

    ok yamur ya-dk- iin stadyum-a zaman-/n/-da var-ama-d-lar.

    (ok / ya*mur / ya*d* / i*in / s*tad*yu*ma / za*ma:*nn*da / va*ra*ma*d*lar )

    They couldnt get to the stadium in time as it was raining heavily. Gzlk-m- ev-de unut-tuk-um iin retmen-in tahta-/y/a yaz-dk-lar-

    -/n/ gr-eme-di-im.

    (gz*l**m / ev*de / u*nut*tu*um / i*in / *ret*me*nin / tah*ta*ya /

    yaz*dk*la*r*n / g*re*me*dim )

    As I had left my glasses at home, I couldnt see what the teacher was

    writing on the board. The two "ben-im" words above are put there to show the compounds

    clearly. They are not used in current speech, and "retmen-in tahta-ya yaz-

    dk-lar- is a noun + infinitive compound.

    Saat be ol-duk-u iin al-ma-/y/ brak-sa-ak iyi ol-ur.

    (sa*at / be / ol*du*u / i*in~ / a*l*ma*y / b*rak*sak / i*yi / o*lur )

    As it is five, we had better stop work-ing. (Work-ing is a nominal gerund.)

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    25

    The conjunction nk is used in Turkish as because is used in

    English:

    Yava yava yr-yor-du, nk ar bir sepet ta-yor-du.

    She was walking slowly because she was carrying a heavy basket. ok al-mal-sn, nk yarn snav-a gir-ecek-sin.

    You must study hard because you will have an examination tomorrow.

    Yznden, den dolay or nedeniyle complex postpositions can be

    used in Turkish as because of preposition is used in English:

    iddet-li yamur yz-/n/-den (neden-i/y/-le) ma- ertele-mek zor-u/n/-da

    kal-d-lar. (id*det*li / ya*mur / y*zn*den / ma* / er*te*le*mek / zo*run*-

    da / kal*d*lar ) They had to postpone the match because of the heavy

    rainfall.

    Youn trafik yz-/n/-den (neden-i/y/-le) okul-a ge kal-d-m.

    (yo*un / tra*fik / y*zn*den / o*ku*la / ge / kal*dm )

    I came to school late because of the heavy traffic.

    Otobs grev-i yznden ev-e yr-/y/erek git-mek zorunda kal-d-k.

    (o*to*bs / gre*vi / y*zn*den / e*ve / y*r*ye*rek / git*mek / zo*run*da /

    kal*dk ) We had to walk home because of the bus strike.

    Yksek fiyat-lar yznden hi birey satn al-ama-d-m.

    I couldnt buy anything because of the high prices. Fatma gzel gzler-i nedeni/y/-le ekici-dir.

    (fat*ma / g*zel / gz*le*ri / ne*de*niy*le / e*ki*ci*dir )

    Fatma is attractive because of her beautiful eyes.

    CONTRAST (RAMEN, KARIN)

    Noun compounds like (ben-im) al-ma-am-a ramen, (onun) git-me-/s/i-

    /n/e ramen structures are used in Turkish in place of although +

    sentence in English. Ben-im al-ma-am, sen-in gel-me-en, biz-im

    konu-ma-amz compounds are noun + infinitive compounds, whose

    second parts are made of infinitives. The [e, a] allomorphs are the

    allomorphs that are attached to nouns, pronouns and noun compounds,

    which help them to be used as adverbials in sentences. Ramen, karn

    or neden-i/y/-le" are postpositions used after nouns attached either to [e], or

    [a] allomorphs:

  • ENGLISH ADVERBIAL CLAUSES AND TURKISH ADVERBIAL PHRASES

    26

    (O) onu (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) al-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen baar-ama-d

    subj | noun + infinitive compound- /n/a postp | def obj postpositional adverbial phrase of contrast verb predicate

    Note: The /s/ and /n/ are glides. "Kendisinin" and "o" are put here to help the

    learners understand the deleted parts of the compounds. They are not used

    in current Turkish because "kendisinin" and "o" can be understood from the

    possessive allomorphs. The mental production of this sentence is as follows:

    (O) ok alt + ramen (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) ok al-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen"

    He studied hard + although although he studied hard He couldnt succeed although he studied hard. subj verb adverbial clause of contrast

    predicate

    Ahmet (kendi-/s/i-/n/in) otomobil-i ol-ma-/s/-/n/a ramen okul-a otobs-le gel-ir.

    subject noun compound - /n/[a] postp | | |

    postpositional phrase of contrast adverbial adverbial verb predicate

    Although Ahmet has got a car, he comes to school by bus. Yorgun ol-ma-am-a ramen al-ma-/y/a devam et-meli-/y/im. (Liaison)

    (yor*gun / ol*ma*ma / ra*men / a*l*ma*ya / de*va:*met*me*li*yim )

    I must go on work-ing although I am tired. ki kez oku-ma-am-a ramen ders-i anla-/y/ama-d-m.

    (i*ki / kez / o*ku*ma*ma / ra*men / der*si / an*la*ya*ma*dm )

    I couldnt understand the lesson although I read twice.