 paleolithic/old stone age › the first stage in human culture  neolithic/new stone age ›...

Download  Paleolithic/Old Stone Age › The first stage in human culture  Neolithic/New Stone Age › The second stage in human culture  Cuneiform › A writing style

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  • Paleolithic/Old Stone Age The first stage in human culture Neolithic/New Stone Age The second stage in human culture Cuneiform A writing style made up of wedge shaped markings that were pressed into damp clay Civilization Advanced state of human development; contain social, political, and cultural complexity
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  • Pantheon A large group of gods; all the gods of a certain culture/civilization Hierarchy A system of persons or things ranked one above another Hieroglyphic Writing style made up of pictures and symbols Polytheistic Having multiple gods
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  • Goes back to over 1,000,000,000 BCE Humans Were nomadic (moved from place to place) Hunted and Gathered Discovered fire, clothing, and simple social organization
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  • Between 8,000 and 3,000 BCE Also known as Agricultural Period Humans Began to settle down Raised crops Saw improvements in stone tools, pottery and textiles Learned to live together in small villages
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  • Wide area of land in the Fertile Crescent Between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers Located in modern day Iraq Considered to be the birthplace of civilization Sumerians First civilization to emerge in the ancient world
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  • Hammurabi First great ruler to emerge in Mesopotamia Babylon The capitol city Hammurabi chose for himself and his people Hence, his people were known as Babylonians The Code of Hammurabi A wide-ranged legal system Made up of 282 articles Meant to answer all of the legal questions of the time Eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth
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  • Sumerians wrote using Cuneiform Writing style made up of wedge shaped markings Benefits of a Written Language Document the past Increased communication Keeping Records (taxes, irrigation patterns, storage details, etc.) Strengthens government Literacy indicated class and therefore power
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  • Sumerians were Polytheistic Life was the focus of their religion Gods were often given attributes of humans and animals Individual gods served specific purposes Gods were placed in a hierarchy Some cities placed different gods at the top of their hierarchy Kings answered to the gods alone Social classes were tied into religion as well
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  • Egyptian civilization developed around the same time as the Sumerians Settlements located along the Nile River in modern day Egypt Egyptians depended on the annual flooding of the Nile to plant crops
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  • Literacy Used Hieroglyphics (picture writing) Each picture represents a syllable, not actual words or objects
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  • Religion Egyptians were Polytheistic Identified the pharaoh (king) with the sun god Pharaoh was also physical manifestation of the sky god Death opened the path to the afterlife The body had to be preserved in some way for the soul to live on Mummification, embalming, etc.
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  • Egyptian art and architecture focused on Death or the Afterlife. Art and Architecture functioned as an eternal dwelling place for the dead Egyptian mortuaries (funeral homes) were highly decorated Mortuaries also contain funeral imagery and narratives for those who dwelled there
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  • Pharaohs were considered the link to the afterlife Common citizens worked to secure the pharaohs existence in the afterworld Offerings, sacrifices, etc.
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  • Cave Paintings The Cave of Lascaux Discovered in 1940 by a group of children Cave was sealed off in 1963 to protect it from atmospheric damage An exact replica exists in a quarry 600 ft. away Contains paintings of various bulls, horses, and deer
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  • The Tombs of Thebes Burial sites located in the ancient city of Thebes Provides most of what we know about Egyptian painting Comprised of funerary art (art made for rituals of death)
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  • The Tombs of Thebes cont. First discovered representations of the gods Portrayed everyday life as well Utilized four hues(colors) that never changed in value Showed people in profile (viewed from the side) No attempt at lifelikeness was made
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  • Sumerian Focused on kings Usually performing devotional (religious) acts Sumerian court (royalty) generated sculptures out of gold Emphasized the importance of religion in Sumerian culture
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  • Egyptian Major art form of the Egyptians Avoided lifelike sculptures for two reasons 1.) A close likeness could capture the soul 2.) Lifelikeness was too technically challenging Egyptians were very detailed with sculptures of the human body Surfaces were painted for decoration
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  • The Great Sphinx Carved out of the natural rock Portrays the head of the pharaoh on the body of a lion Reinforces the relationship between the pharaoh and the gods Egyptian cont.
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  • The Funerary Mask of Tutankhamun (King Tut) Made of solid gold Inlaid with semiprecious stone and colored glass Meant to record his likeness and cover his mummified head Reveals the royal nemes (headdress) and two symbolic creatures that protect Egypt
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  • Egyptian Pyramids Oldest existing buildings in the world Filled with secret passageways and rooms Meant to protect the bodies of the pharaohs
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  • Egyptian Pyramids cont. Usually constructed with a nearby temple The pyramids at Giza have a carefully planned layout Each pyramids faces point directly north, south, east, and west The size and position of the pyramids may be symbolizing the stars in Orions belt
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  • Sumerian Mostly used as a source of entertainment Mostly used stringed instruments Some vocal music with instrumental accompaniment existed Egyptian Instruments consisted of Harps, lyres, pipes, flutes, cymbals, and bells Harps were the basic instrument
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  • Egyptian cont. Tamboura Similar to modern violins or guitars Cat gut was used to make strings for instruments
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  • Egyptian Stride Dances Formal style of dancing Typically consists of forward motions based on rhythmic themes Were part of larger ceremonial dances for funerals and fertility
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  • Sumerian The Epic of Gilgamesh Oldest known story in the world Contains a story of a great flood much like the story of Noah in the Bible A story about the physical and spiritual trials of Gilgamesh
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  • Egyptian The Book of the Dead Collection of mortuary texts Contained spells, magic formulas to protect and serve the dead in the afterlife