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  • 1. Video-Editing Techniques Guilford County Sci Vis V204.03

2. Video Post-Production.

  • Creating an animation using a program such as 3D Studio Max or trueSpace is often just a part of a total video production process.
  • Video editing software (such as AdobePremiere ) offers the opportunity to enhance animation productions with sound, still images, and scene transitions.

3. Video Post-Production.

  • The addition ofsoundcan add realism and interest to a video production.
  • Titles and single images (static or scrolling) provide additional information.

4. Digital Versus Analog

  • Analog(linear) devicesrecord light and sound ascontinuously changing electrical signals described by a continuous change of voltage.
  • Digital recordings are composed of a series of specific, discrete values which are recorded and manipulated as bits of information, which can be accessed or modified one bit at the time or in selected groups of bits.

5.

  • Digitalmedia is stored in aformat that a computer can read and process directly.
    • Digital cameras, scanners, and digital audio recorders can be used to save images and sound in a format that can be recognized by computer programs.
    • Digital media may come from images created or sound recorded directly by computer programs.

Digital Versus Analog 6. Digital Versus Analog

  • Analog media must be digitized or converted to a digital format before using a computer
    • Analog images may be obtained from such sources as older video cameras working withVHSor SVHS.Analog sounds may come from sources such as audiotapes and recordings.
    • Hardware devices such as a video capture card must be attached to the computer to bring analog materials into computer video editing programs.

7.

  • Sufficient computer resources are needed fordigitalvideo editing.
    • Fast processors needed to process the video.
    • AdditionalRAMbeyond customary requirements is needed.

Digital Versus Analog 8. Digital Versus Analog

  • Very largehard drivesare needed. Few minutes of footage require vast amounts of storage.
  • Video cards should be capable of working with 24-bit color depth displays.
  • Largemonitors are better due to the need to work with numerous software displays.

9. Specifying Project Settings

  • Selecting settings can be a complex task requiring an understanding of input resources and output goals.
  • The ability to make good decisions regarding capture, edit, and output settings require an understanding of topics such as frame rates, compression, and audio.
  • Numerous books can help butExperienceis still a really good teacher.

10. Specifying Project Settings

  • Timebasespecifies time divisions used to calculate the time position of each edit, expressed in frames per second (fps).
    • 24 is used for editingmotion-picturefilm
    • 25 for editingPAL (European standard)
    • 29.97 for editingNTSC (North American standard) video (television)

11. Specifying Project Settings

  • Framerateindicates to the number of frames per second contained in the source or the exported video.Whenever possible, the timebase and frame rate agree.The frame rate does not affect the speed of the video, only how smoothly it displays.
  • Timecodeis a way of specifying time.Timecode is displayed in hours, minutes, second and frames (00;00;00;00).The timecode number gives each frame a unique address.

12. Specifying Project Settings

  • Frame sizespecifies the dimensions (in pixels) for frames.Choose the frame size that matches your source video. Common frames sizes include:
    • 640 x 480standard forlow -end video cards
    • 720 x 486standard-resolutionprofessionalvideo
    • 720 x 480 DVstandard
    • 720 x 576 PALvideo standard (Used in Europe.)

13. Specifying Project Settings

  • Aspect ratiois the ratio of width to height of the video display.
    • Pixel aspect ratiois the ratio for a pixel while theframe aspect ratiois the width toheightrelationship for an image.
    • 4:3 is the standard for conventional television andanalogvideo.
    • 16:9 is themotionpicture standard.
    • Distortion can occur when a source image has a different pixel aspect ratio from the one used by your display monitor.Somesoftwaremay correct for the distortion .

14.

  • CODECs(compressor/decompressor) specify the compression system used for reducing the size of digital files.Digital video and audio files are very large and must be reduced for use on anything other than powerful computer systems.Some common CODECS include systems for QuickTime or Windows.

Specifying Project Settings 15.

  • QuickTime (movie-playing format for both the Mac and Windows platform) - Cinepak, DV-NTSC, Motion JPEG A and B, Video
  • Video for Windows(movie-playing format available only for the Windows platform) Cinepak, Intel Indeo, Microrsoft DV, Microsoft Video1

Specifying Project Settings 16. Specifying Project Settings

  • Colorbit depthis the number of colors to be included.The more colors that you choose to work with, the larger the file size and in turn, the more computer resources required.
    • 8-bit color (256 colors) might be used for displays on theWeb.
    • 24-bit color ( millionsof colors) produces the best image quality.
    • 32-bit color (millions of colors) allows the use of analphachannel .

17. Specifying Project Settings

  • Audiobit depthis the number of bits used to describe the audio sample.
    • 8-bit mono is similar toFMradio
    • 16-bit is similar toCDaudio
  • Audio interleavespecifies how often audio information is inserted among the video frames.

18.

  • Audiocompressionreduces file size and is needed when you plan to export very large audio files to CD-ROMs or the Internet.
  • Audio formats includeWAV , MP3, and MIDI files. MIDI files do not include vocals.MPEGfiles can also include audio.

Specifying Project Settings 19. The Editing Process

  • Visual and audio source media are referred to asclips ,which is a film industry metaphor referring to short segments of a film project.
    • Clips may be either computer-generated orlive -action images or sounds that may last from a few frames to several minutes.
    • Binsare used store and organize clips in a small screen space.Bin is another film industry metaphor, which is where editors hung strips of film until added to the total production.

20. Premiere UI 21. Editing Tools

  • Opening and viewing clips
    • Images must be in a format that the video editing software can recognize such as anavi(for animation),wav(for sound), orjpg(for still image) before it can be imported.
    • Many software programs provide both asourcewindow and a separate program window where the entire production can be monitored.
    • Soundclips may be displayed as a waveform where sounds are shown as spikes in a graph.

22. Editing Tools

  • Playbackcontrolsare a part of most viewing windows.Play, Stop, Frame back, frame forward are typical of window commands.
  • TheTimelinehelps cue the user as to the relative position and duration of a particular clip (or frame) within the program by graphically showing the clips as colored bars whose length is an indication of the duration.As clip positions are moved along the timeline, their position within the program is changed.

23. Editing Tools

  • Typically the timeline will include rows or individual tracks for images, audio, and scene transition clips.Thetracksoften include a time ruler for measurement of the clips duration.
  • Some programs allow the duration of a clip to be changed by altering the length of the bar representing the clip.Scenes within the program may be slowed or the speed increased using thisstretchmethod.

24. Editing Tools

  • Cutting and joining clips
    • Software tools are typically available for selecting a clip on the timeline and then cutting the bar that represents the clip.Using this process, segments of film may be separated, deleted, moved, orjoinedwith other clips.
    • Cutting and joining may be used on audio orvideo .

25. Editing Tools

  • Transitionsallow you to make a gradual or interesting change from one clip to another by using special effects.
    • Transitions might includedissolve , page peels, slides, and stretches.
    • The