Video-Editing Techniques

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Video-Editing Techniques. Sci Vis II HN V204.03. E.Q. How can we use Adobe Premier Pro to work with video editing?. Video Post-Production. Creating an animation using a program such as 3D Studio Max or trueSpace is often just a part of a total video production process. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Advanced Static and Dynamic Visualization

Video-Editing TechniquesSci Vis II HNV204.03

E.QHow can we use Adobe Premier Pro to work with video editing?Video Post-Production.Creating an animation using a program such as 3D Studio Max or trueSpace is often just a part of a total video production process.Video editing software (such as Adobe Premiere) offers the opportunity to enhance animation productions with sound, still images, and scene transitions.

Video Post-Production.The addition of sound can add realism and interest to a video production.Titles and single images (static or scrolling) provide additional information.

Digital Versus Analog Analog (linear) devices record light and sound as continuously changing electrical signals described by a continuous change of voltage. Digital recordings are composed of a series of specific, discrete values which are recorded and manipulated as bits of information, which can be accessed or modified one bit at the time or in selected groups of bits.

Digital Versus Analog Digital media is stored in a format that a computer can read and process directly.Digital cameras, scanners, and digital audio recorders can be used to save images and sound in a format that can be recognized by computer programs.Digital media may come from images created or sound recorded directly by computer programs.

Digital Versus Analog Analog media must be digitized or converted to a digital format before using a computerAnalog images may be obtained from such sources as older video cameras working with VHS or SVHS. Analog sounds may come from sources such as audiotapes and recordings.Hardware devices such as a video capture card must be attached to the computer to bring analog materials into computer video editing programs.

Sufficient computer resources are needed for digital video editing.Fast processors needed to process the video.Additional RAM beyond customary requirements is needed.

Digital Versus Analog Digital Versus Analog Very large hard drives are needed. Few minutes of footage require vast amounts of storage.Video cards should be capable of working with 24-bit color depth displays.Large monitors are better due to the need to work with numerous software displays.

Specifying Project SettingsSelecting settings can be a complex task requiring an understanding of input resources and output goals. The ability to make good decisions regarding capture, edit, and output settings require an understanding of topics such as frame rates, compression, and audio. Numerous books can help but Experience is still a really good teacher.

Timebase specifies time divisions used to calculate the time position of each edit, expressed in frames per second (fps).24fps this is the frame rate of film. In video it tends to be 23.976fps is used to mimic the film look.

25fps is 50Hz halved & used in SD or HD. Usually PAL countries like the UK, Australia and most of Europe.

29.97fps is 59.94Hz halved Used in SD or HD. Usually NTSC countries incl. USA, Canada, Japan.

Specifying Project Settings30fps Some cameras do actually record 30fps but often it might really mean 29.97fps rounded-up.

50fps Used for HD recordings in PAL countries gives a really smooth motion pictures.

60fps (usually 59.94 rounded-up) Used for HD recordings in NTSC countries again gives smooth motion.

Specifying Project SettingsSpecifying Project SettingsFrame rate indicates to the number of frames per second contained in the source or the exported video. Whenever possible, the timebase and frame rate agree. The frame rate does not affect the speed of the video, only how smoothly it displays.Timecode is a way of specifying time. Timecode is displayed in hours, minutes, second and frames (00;00;00;00). The timecode number gives each frame a unique address.

Specifying Project SettingsFrame size specifies the dimensions (in pixels) for frames. Choose the frame size that matches your source video. Common frames sizes include: 480 = 720 x 480 pixels and is normal for NTSC type standard definition (SD) video.

576 = 720 x 576 pixels and is normal for PAL type SD video.

720 = 1280 x 720 pixels and is a high definition (HD) format.

1080 = 1920 x 1080 pixels. This is also high definition and is sometimes described as Full HD or 2K.

Specifying Project SettingsAspect ratio is the ratio of width to height of the video display. Pixel aspect ratio is the ratio for a pixel while the frame aspect ratio is the width to height relationship for an image. 4:3 is the standard for conventional television and analog video.16:9 is the motion picture standard.Distortion can occur when a source image has a different pixel aspect ratio from the one used by your display monitor. Some software may correct for the distortion.

CODECs (compressor/decompressor) specify the compression system used for reducing the size of digital files. Digital video and audio files are very large and must be reduced for use on anything other than powerful computer systems. Some common CODECS include systems for QuickTime or Windows.Specifying Project SettingsSpecifying Project SettingsQuickTime (movie-playing format for both the Mac and Windows platform) - Cinepak, DV-NTSC, Motion JPEG A and B, VideoVideo for Windows (movie-playing format available only for the Windows platform) Cinepak, Intel Indeo, Microrsoft DV, Microsoft Video1

Specifying Project SettingsColor bit depth is the number of colors to be included. The more colors that you choose to work with, the larger the file size and in turn, the more computer resources required.8-bit color (256 colors) might be used for displays on the Web.24-bit color (millions of colors) produces the best image quality.32-bit color (millions of colors) allows the use of an alpha channel .

Specifying Project SettingsAudio bit depth is the number of bits used to describe the audio sample.8-bit mono is similar to FM radio16-bit is similar to CD audioAudio interleave specifies how often audio information is inserted among the video frames.

Specifying Project SettingsAudio compression reduces file size and is needed when you plan to export very large audio files to CD-ROMs or the Internet. Audio formats include WAV, MP3, and MIDI files. MIDI files do not include vocals. MPEG files can also include audio.

The Editing ProcessVisual and audio source media are referred to as clips, which is a film industry metaphor referring to short segments of a film project. Clips may be either computer-generated or live-action images or sounds that may last from a few frames to several minutes.Bins are used store and organize clips in a small screen space. Bin is another film industry metaphor, which is where editors hung strips of film until added to the total production.

Premiere UI

Editing Tools Opening and viewing clipsImages must be in a format that the video editing software can recognize such as an avi (for animation), wav (for sound), or jpg (for still image) before it can be imported. Many software programs provide both a source window and a separate program window where the entire production can be monitored.Sound clips may be displayed as a waveform where sounds are shown as spikes in a graph.

Editing Tools Playback controls are a part of most viewing windows. Play, Stop, Frame back, frame forward are typical of window commands.The Timeline helps cue the user as to the relative position and duration of a particular clip (or frame) within the program by graphically showing the clips as colored bars whose length is an indication of the duration. As clip positions are moved along the timeline, their position within the program is changed.

Editing Tools Typically the timeline will include rows or individual tracks for images, audio, and scene transition clips. The tracks often include a time ruler for measurement of the clips duration.Some programs allow the duration of a clip to be changed by altering the length of the bar representing the clip. Scenes within the program may be slowed or the speed increased using this stretch method.

Editing ToolsCutting and joining clipsSoftware tools are typically available for selecting a clip on the timeline and then cutting the bar that represents the clip. Using this process, segments of film may be separated, deleted, moved, or joined with other clips.Cutting and joining may be used on audio or video.

Editing ToolsTransitions allow you to make a gradual or interesting change from one clip to another by using special effects.Transitions might include dissolve, page peels, slides, and stretches.The number and types of transitions available depend upon the software you are using. Audio mixing is the process of making adjustments to sound clips.

Editing ToolsTitle clips Alpha channel allows you superimpose the title Title rolls allow text to move from the bottom of the screen to beyond the top used for credits.

Editing ToolsA title crawl moves the text horizontally across the screen. News bulletins along the bottom of the television are an example of this type of effect.Text and graphics may be created in other programs and inserted. Video editing programs are usually limited in their ability to create and manipulate text and graphics.

Editing ToolsBy using layering techniques, adjusting opacity, and creating transparency, composite clips can be created. Bluescreen (greenscreen) and track hierarchy allow background scenes to be overlaid and image editing to occur.Keying makes only certain parts of a clip transparent which can then be filled with other images (clips on the lower tracks of the timeline.)

Creating OutputOutput may be to videotape for display on a t