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    VATICAN CITY STATE

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    Vatican City is landlocked sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a

    walled enclave within the city of Rome, Italy.

    It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (0,44

    km), and a population of just over 800. This makes

    Vatican City the smallest independent city in the

    world by both area and population.

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    The Vatican climate is the same as Rome's; a

    temperate, Mediterranean climate with mild, rainy

    winters from September to mid-May and hot, dry

    summers from May to August.

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    Political system

    The government of Vatican City has a uniquestructure. The Pope is the sovereign of the state.

    Legislative authority is vested in the Pontifical

    Commission for Vatican City State, a body of

    cardinals appointed by the Pope for five-yearperiods.

    Papa Benedict XVI

    http://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papa_Benedict_XVIhttp://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papa_Benedict_XVIhttp://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papa_Benedict_XVIhttp://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papa_Benedict_XVIhttp://tr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Papa_Benedict_XVI
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    Executive power is in the hands of the President ofthat commission, assisted by the General Secretary

    and Deputy General Secretary. The state's foreign

    relations are entrusted to the Holy See's Secretariat

    of State and diplomatic service. Nevertheless, thepope has full and absolute executive, legislative

    and judicial power over Vatican City. He is currently

    the only absolute monarch in Europe.

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    Vatican City State was established in 1929 by

    the Lateran Treaty.

    Patti Lateranensi was signed by Italy and church.According to this treaty it was accepted which official

    language was Catholic and Rome was holy city.

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    The Vatican citizenry consists almost entirely of two

    groups: clergy, most of whom work in the service of

    the Holy See, and a very few as officials of the

    state; and the Swiss Guard.

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    SWISS GUARD

    Swiss Guards are the Swiss soldiers who have

    served as bodyguards, ceremonial guards,

    and palace guards at foreign European courts since

    the late 15th century. Apart from household and

    guard units, regularSwiss mercenary regiments have served as line

    troops in various armies; notably those

    of France, Spain and Naples up to the 19th century.

    In contemporary usage, the name SwissGuards generally refers to the Pontifical Swiss

    Guard of Holy See.

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    Vatican City is home to some of the most famous

    art in the world.

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    St. Peter's Basilica, whose successive architects

    include Bramante, Michelangelo,Giacomo dell

    Porta, Maderno and Bernini, is a renowned workof Renaissance architecture.

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    The Sistine Chapel is famous for its frescos, which

    include works by Perugino, Domenico

    Ghirlandaio and Botticelli as well as

    the ceiling and Last Judgement by Michelangelo.

    Artists who decorated the interiors of the Vatican

    include Raphael and Fra Angelico.

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    Vatican has 200 magazines and news. It is

    published weekly and monthly. Also it has 154 radio

    stations or emission. In addition there are 49 tvchannels or cable tv.

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    The Vatican Gardens have been a place of quiet

    and meditation for the Popes ever since 1279 when

    Nicholas III moved his residence back to theVatican from the Lateran Palace.

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    QUESTIONS

    1) Which Hollywood movie is about the Vatican?

    2) Today what is name of the pope ?

    3) Was the Vatican City established by who ?

    4) How many years is the pope duty ?

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