types of sweetener

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Sweeteners

Sweeteners December 232014Abstract : Carbohydrates are an important dietary nutrient which is mostly used to supply energy to the body, as well as a carbon source for synthesis of other needed chemicals. In addition, mono- and disaccharides are craved because of their sweetness. We present different types of sweeteners, whichare the basic contents of foods which we consume every day and are demonstrated the positive and negative effects of natural and artificial sweeteners.Artificial & Natural sweeteners

Key words : artificial, carbohydrates, natural, sweeteners

Jordan University of Science & TechnologyNutrition and Food Science

Sweeteners ( Artificial & Natural )

Done By : Hana'a Jamal MaheliAdvisor : Dr. Sana'a Qammoh

IntroductionWe will talk in this paper about sweeteners , by both type ( artificial and natural ). We will define each one by individual ( sweetener , natural sweeteners and artificial sweeteners ). On another hand , we will discuss each type to specific . For natural we will compare between these kind ( honey , Maple syrup , Molases , Polyols , Stevioside , Thaumatin and sucrose ) .For artificial we will comare between these kind ( Acesulfame potassium , Aspartame , Saccharin , Sucralose , sodium cyclamate and Neotame ) .

Discussion Sweeteners : is a substance used to sweeten food or drink, especially one other than sugar. Natural sweeteners : exist or are produced by nature, without added chemicals or fancy machinery. The only sugars that are optimal to eat are wild, non-hybridized,seeded fruits, and the natural sugars and starches in living vegetables, trees, seeds, nuts, and roots. The following are considered natural sweeteners: maple syrup, honey, molasses and xylitol. Artificial sweeteners : which are also called sugar substitutes, alternative sweeteners, or non-sugar sweeteners, are substances used to replace sugar in foods and beverages. They can be divided into two large groups: nutritive sweeteners, which add some energy value (calories) to food; and non-nutritive sweeteners, which are also called high-intensity sweeteners because they are used in very small quantities, adding no energy value to food . Types of sweetener1. Artificial sweeteners2. Natural sweeteners It is possible to categorize allsweetenersinto 6 groups:1. Sugars2.SugarAlcohols3. Natural Caloric Sweeteners4. Natural Zero Calorie Sweeteners5.ModifiedSugars6.Artificial Sweeteners

Nearly all types of sweetener fall into these 6 categories. A few such as Inulin could be considered as sugar fibers, but they could also fall under the Sugar heading.

1. Sugars.These are carbohydrates and contain 4 calories per gram. They are found naturally in many foods including fruit, vegetables, cereals and milk. They can be harmful to teeth and tend to have a high glycemic index.The most common are:Sucrose, Glucose, Dextrose, Fructose, Lactose, Maltose, Galactose and Trehalose.

2. Sugar AlcoholsLike sugars these are carbohydrates and occur naturally, though in small amounts, in plants and cereals. They typically contain fewer calories per gram than sugar and do not cause tooth decay. Because they are carbohydrates, they should have 4 calories per gram. However the body is unable to fully metabolize them, and consequently they tend to have fewer available calories per gram. The downside of this is that they can cause cramps or bloating if taken in excess. They are harmless to teeth and tend to have a very low glycemic index.The most common are:Sorbitol, Xylitol, Mannitol, Maltitol, Erythritol, Isomalt, Lactitol, Glycerol

Sorbitol

Sorbitol, also known asglucitol, is asugar alcoholwith asweettastewhich the human body metabolizes slowly. It can be obtained byreductionofglucose, changing thealdehydegroup to ahydroxylgroup. Most sorbitol is made fromcorn syrup, but it is also found in apples, pears, peaches, and prunes.[1]It is synthesized by sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and converted to fructose by succinate dehydrogenase andsorbitol dehydrogenase.[1]Succinate dehydrogenase is an enzyme complex that participates in thecitric acid cycle.[1]Sorbitol is anisomerofmannitol, another sugar alcohol; the two differ only in the orientation of thehydroxylgroup on carbon 2.[2]While similar, the two sugar alcohols have very different sources in nature, melting points, and uses.Overdose effects Ingesting large amounts of sorbitol can lead to abdominal pain, flatulence, and mild to severe diarrhea. Sorbitol ingestion of 20 grams (0.7 oz) per day as sugar-free gum has led to severe diarrhea leading to unintended weight loss of 11 kilograms (24 lb) in eight months, in a woman originally weighing 52 kilograms (115 lb); another patient required hospitalization after habitually consuming 30 grams (1 oz) per day.

3. Natural Caloric SweetenersThese are the oldest known sweeteners and include honey and maple syrup. They contain sugar but also other nutritive qualities. They tend to have a somewhat lower glycemic index than sugar, but still need to be taken in moderation as they can be detrimental to health in large quantities. They can also be harmful to teeth.

They include:Honey, Maple Syrup, Coconut Palm Sugar and molasses. Honey sweetness from the mono-saccharides fructose and glucose, 74% of the sweetness of sucrose, Most micro-organisms do not grow in honey because of its low water activity of 0.6. Maple syrup comes from the sap of maple trees, which is collected, filtered, and boiled down to an extremely sweet syrup with a distinctive flavor. It contains fewer calories and a higher concentration of minerals (like manganese and zinc) than honey. You can find it in bulk in some natural foods stores, but dont be fooled by fake maple syrups, which are cheaper and more readily available at the grocery store. "Maple-flavored syrups" are imitations of real maple syrup. To easily tell the difference, read the ingredients list on the nutrition label. True maple syrup contains nothing but maple syrup. Imitation syrups are primarily made of high fructose corn syrup, sugar, and/or artificial sweeteners , This sap has only 3% to 5% total solids, consisting mainly of sucrose

Molasses is a viscous by-product of the refining ofsugarcane or sugar beets into sugar. A typical composition of molasses contains the following substances: sucrose 35.9 % , fructose 5.6 %......,

4. Natural Zero Calorie SweetenersThese are not carbohydrates and contain little or no calories. It is only in recent years that interest has grown in these as a better alternative to artificial sweeteners. They have zero glycemic index and are harmless to teeth. Like artificial sweeteners they can have an aftertaste.They include:Luo Han Guo, Stevia, Thaumatin, Pentadin, Monellin, Brazzein.

ThaumatinA mixture of intensely sweet- tasting proteins extracted from the fruit of a West African plant , used as sweeteners in food Health and safety: Natural, intense sweetness Stable in freeze-dried form and soluble in water and aqueous alcohol Does not promote tooth decay Heat and pH stable Synergistic when combined with other low-calorie sweeteners (the combinations are sweeter than the sum of the individual sweeteners) Adds mouth-feel

Applications:It used in beverages and desserts but its applications are limited because of its liquorice taste and delayed sweetness ,it used as a partial sweetener mixed with other more rapidly tasting sweeteners . It enhance and improve the flavor of coffee and milk products .it enhance savoury flavors

Stevia A sweet glycoside extracted from the leaves of the plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni . Stevioside ,sucrose,thaumatin are the only sweetners extracted and refined from plants without chemical or enzymic modification. allowed for the FDA to approve Stevia as a general sweetener (2008). Many different forms of Stevia as a sweeteners exist such as: Reb A, Reb B, Reb C, Reb D, Rebiana, Stevioside, SunCrystals and Enliten.

Polyols sugar replacer, produced by hydrogenation of sugars and syrups with aid catalyst , They may act as a laxative, used as direct replacements for sugar. Polyols are suitable for diabetics by virtue of a reduced glycaemic index .

Polyols include :

Polyols roles in food :* SUGAR REPLACERPolyols replace the bulk and sweetness of sugars in foods and they enhance the flavor of sugar-free foods

* ADD BULK AND TEXTURE Polyols have a mild sweet taste. Thus, polyols can be used in the same volume as sugar, adding bulk to foods with about half the calories. Polyols & their function in the body :They are only partially absorbed by the body.** **Absorbed portions are either metabolized (generally by insulin-independent mechanisms) or excreted via the urinary tract .Unabsorbed polyols are partially fermented in the colon and excreted ** 5. Modified Sugars.These are typically sugars produced by converting starch using enzymes. The list also includes sugars that have been modified such as caramel or golden syrup. They tend to have a high glycemic index and can be harmful to teeth. They are often used in cooking or in processed foods.A few are:High Fructose Corn Syrup, Refiners Syrup, Caramel , Inverted Sugar, Golden Syrup.

6. Artificial Sweeteners.There are many types on the market and some appear to be safer than others. They have been in use in America and Europe for over 120 years. They have zero glycemic index and are harmless to teeth.The most common are:Aspartame, Sucralose, Saccharin, Neotame, Sodium Cyclamate Aspartame Aspartame is a di-peptide methyl ester composed of two amino acids phenylalanine and aspartic acid . Mixing has the advantages of improving processing and shelf stability and cost reduction such as mixing aspartame with acesulfame-k or with sodium saccharin ,sodium cyclamate ,glucose